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UB ANA 113 Lec 13

Nervous System I: Histology

Central Nervous System Brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system somatic (voluntary) and autonomic (involuntary)
neurons receive and transmit info
sensory neurons afferent - deliver info to CNS
motor neurons efferent - carry info to PNS
associative interneuron - between sensory and motor... modify response
Multipolar neuron - L throughout brain and spinal cord
bipolar neuron - L found in retina and inner ear *special senses
Unipolar neuron - L In clusters (ganglia) from base of skull to sacrum
cell body has organelles, no centrioles
nissl bodies chromatophillic bodies. Free ribosomes that produce protein (neurotransmitters) and RER
neurofibrils cyctoskeleton, maintains shape of cell body
dendrites more than one per neuron. Transmit info to cell body
axon nerve fiber. One per neuron. transmit info from cell body
myelin sheath - Function conducts electrical impulse
Amount of myelin affects... function and speed of impulse
oligodendrocytes produce myelin in CNS
schwann cells produce myelin in PNS. "neurolemmocyte"
Composition of myelin sheath lipid (fat)
neuroglia "neural glue" ... supporting cells of nervous system
microglia CNS. phagocytic. ingest dead/damaged tissue
astrocyte CNS. Contact neuron and capillary. Aid in nourishment of neurons
Blood-Brain barrier Astrocytes. Basement Membrane. Endothelial wall of capillary
Edendymal cells CNS. Line cavities (ventricles) of the brain. Keep fluid away from neurons.
Satellite cell PNS. Regulates nourishment (like an astrocyte)
Nuclei CNS. Cluster of neurons
Ganglia PNS. Cluster of neurons
Nerve PNS. Bundle of axons
Tract CNS. Bundle of axons
Neurilemma cell wall of oligodendrocyte or schwann cell
Nodes of ranvier area on axon not covered by myelin
synaptic vesicles terminals, end of axon does not touch the next neuron
synapse space between neurons. site of communication
pre-synaptic neuron neuron before synapse
synaptic cleft space between axon of presynaptic neuron and dendrite of post synaptic neuron
post-synaptic neuron neuron after synapse
continuous conduction continuous flow of the impulse down the axon. Usually in unmyelinated
Saltatory conduction impulse transmitted from one node of ranvier to the next. In myelinated neurons.
consequence of electrical impulse change in permeability. Na+ come in, K+ leave. Synaptic vesicles explode and release neurotransmitter into synapse. target receptor on next dendrite
"A" fiber heavily myelinated. Sharp pain
"B" fiber intermediate myelination
"C" fiber least myelin. Dull pain, cannot localize.
Excitatory neurotransmitters depolarize postsynaptic neuron. acetylcholine, norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine
Inhibitory Neurotransmitters prevent transmission of impulse to next neuron. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). Enkephalins, endorphins, dopamine
Neurotransmitters associated with and cause of drug addiction Heroine and morphine mimic neurotransmitters. Body stops producing Enkephalins and endorphins and you have to continue to take the drug.
neuromuscular junction gap between axon and muscle. "myoneural junction". terminal part of axon, receptor site on muscle fiber.
neuromuscular junction neurotransmitter acetylcholine
Created by: HugsAndKisses