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Ch11 Musclar tissue3

All or Nothing Law

If a muscle fiber is overly contracted at rest then... upon stimulation the thick filaments can contract no farther than the Z discs and the contraction is weak
If a muscle fiber is too stretched then... upon stimulation there is little overlap between thick and thin filaments, and the myosin heads cannot get a good grip on the actin and the contraction is weak
The amount of tension a muscle generates depends on... how stretched or contracted it was before it was stimulated; this principle is termed the length–tension relationship
Action potential triggers the release of Ca2+ into the cytosol and activates the sliding filament mechanism.
Twitch At threshold or higher, a stimulus causes a quick cycle of contraction and relaxation of a muscle fiber. Produced by a single stimulus
Treppe Repeated stimulation after relaxation phase has been completed, causes higher tensions due to increased Ca2+ concentrations in the sarcoplasm
During this time excitation, excitation–contraction coupling, and tensing of elastic components occurs during... a latent period/delay
In the body, the resisting load is usually a bone
Summation Repeated stimulation before relaxation phase has been completed
Wave summation (temporal summation) when stimulation of a muscle fiber is fast enough one twitch is added to another (before complete relaxation takes place)
Incomplete tetanus when a muscle fiber reaches maximal tension and partially relaxes
Complete tetanus muscle fiber reaches maximal tension and stays contracted (relaxation phase is eleminated)
Muscle tone is a result of... Constant tension caused by changing activation of motor units. Thus, Stabilizes bones and joints
Precise control of movement determined by... number and size of motor unit
One cause of treppe is that the SR does not have time to completely reabsorb all the Ca+2 released.
Isometric contraction is contraction(rising tension) without a change in length & can maintain joint stability.
Isotonic contraction is contraction with a change in length but no change in tension & can move a load as the muscle shortens.
Isotonic-concentric contraction a muscle shortens as it maintains tension, such as when the biceps brachii contracts and flexes the elbow to lift a weight.
Isotonic-eccentric contraction a muscle lengthens as it maintains tension, such as when the biceps brachii lengthens as a weight is lowered



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