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UB ANA 113 Lec 19

The Visual System

orbit Protection for the eyeball. Frontal and maxillary bones are major components.
eyebrow Protect eyes from dust. Oil glands on hair continuously produce and trap dust.
eyelid, eyelashes Protect Eye from dust. Blinking keeps front of eye clean and moist. Ex. You blink more in a smoky/dusty environment.
conjuctive Thin transparent membrane that secretes clear mucous. On Back of eyelid and anterior surface of eyeball
conjunctivitis bacterial infection of conjunctiva. "Pink eye" - blood vessels of sclera dialate to kill bacteria, eye looks pink
lacrimal gland -produces tears -upper lateral portion of orbit -Controlled by facial nerve (7th cranial)
nasolacrimal duct -collects tears -between eye and lateral wall of nasal cavity
extrinsic muscles of the eye voluntary movement of the eyeball
How many (main) layers does the eyeball have? 3 - Outer, Middle(vascular), and inner
What is in the outermost layer of the eyeball? sclera and cornea
sclera OUTER LAYER -white part of eye -tough outermost cover = fibrous -protects inner structures of eye -contains blood vessels
cornea OUTER LAYER -multilayered -transparent -normally no blood vessels but if you scratch it they will grow in and never leave
choroid MIDDLE LAYER -blood vessels supplying interior eyeball
ciliary body MIDDLE LAYER - moves and changes shape of lens - has smooth muscle
iris MIDLE LAYER - color portion - changes size of pupil to protect retina from strong light
How Many layers does the retina have? 10 Major
pigmented layer ... where? INNER EYE -of the retina
nervous layer ... where and how many INNER EYE -of the retina -9 layers
rods and cones - function where the impulse is initially detected
bipolar cells - L and F L - Nervous layer of retina. F - carry impulse along from rods and cones to ganglionic cells
ganglionic cells - L and F L - nervous layer of retina. F - receive impulse from bipolar cells. Axons form optic nerve.
fovea centralis -area of sharpest vision on the retina. -where your eye tries to focus light
optic disc -where the optic nerve attaches to the eyeball. -blind spot of the eye -does not have all layers of the retina
What are the cavities of the interior eyeball? Anterior and posterior cavities
What separates the anterior and posterior cavities of the eyeball The lens
Which cavity (anterior or posterior) is further divided into anterior and posterior chambers? Anterior
What divides the 2 chambers of the anterior eyeball? the Iris
What substance is contained in the anterior cavity of the eyeball? aqueous humor
aqueous humor -in anterior cavity of eyeball - "watery" - ciliary body produces
glaucoma excess aqueous humor forces cornea forward causing an increase in pressure
Another name for the posterior cavity of the eyeball vitreous chamber
vitreous humor -In posterior cavity of the eyeball -gelatin like -will always have the same amount as when you were born - not produced anymore
Composition of the lens Elastic CT, contains some protein
Function of the lens changes shape to focus an image
cataracts excess protein in the lens... pupil must get larger to compensate. Clouding occurs
Action of pupil when you look at something close moves anterior, becomes thicker
Action of pupil when you look at something far move posterior, becomes thin
Visual pathway light hits rods and cones and is converted to an electrical impulse in the retina and is transmitted to the occipital lobe of the brain
cones (b/w or color?) Color... Cones = Color
rods (b/w or color?) black and white -also, dim light
Created by: HugsAndKisses



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