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Ch11 Musclar tissue2

Nerve–Muscle Relationship

acetylcholinesterase(AChE) breaks down ACh and limits the duration of contraction
polarized in an unstimulated (resting) cell, where more anions (negative ions) are found on the inside of the plasma membrane than on the outside; the membrane is therefore polarized, or charged.
depolarization cations override the negative charges in the ICF, and the inside of the membrane briefly becomes positive
repolarization. Na+ gates close & K+ gates open; K+ rushes out of the cell, results in the loss of positive K+ ions, turning the inside of the membrane negative again.
Excitation is the process in which action potentials in the nerve fiber lead to action potentials in the muscle fiber; it can be divided into 5 steps.
Excitation–contraction coupling refers to the events that link the action potentials on the sarcolemma to activation of the myofilaments; this process has 4 steps that follow from excitation.
Contraction is the step in which the muscle fiber develops tension & may shorten. Also known as the sliding filament theory. The process can be divided into 4 steps that follow excitation–contraction coupling
Relaxation When stimulation ceases, a muscle fiber relaxes & returns to it resting length; the process can be divided into 5 steps that follow the contraction phase.
End-plate potential (EPP) When the gates are opened, Na+ diffuses into the cell and K+ diffuses out; the sarcolemma reverses polarity from –90 mV to +75 mV, then falls back again as K+ diffuses out.
power stroke Myosin releases the ADP and phosphate and flexes into a bent, low energy shape, tugging the thin filament along with it
Myosin ATPase hydrolyzes ATP that is bound to the myosin head; the energy released activates the head by changing its shape into a “cocked” position
recovery stroke Upon binding to another ATP, myosin releases the actin; it is now prepared to repeat the process by hydrolyzing the ATP & recocking
Active transport pumps Located in the SR pump Ca2+ from the cytosol back into the cisternae.(Is why ATP is needed for muscle relaxation & contraction.



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