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EK Bio Lec4

Important notes/words from Examkracker's Biology Lecture 4

What do secretory vesicles contain? They contain enzymes, growth factors or extracellular matrix components
What are adipocytes? They are cells that contain predominately fat droplets
What are adipocytes important for? These cells are important for energy storage and body temperature regulation
What are the roles of smooth ER? 1. Take part in glycolysis 2. Produce trigylcerides 3. Cholesterol formation 4. Oxidizes bad stuff
What are peroxisomes? Self-replicating vesicles in the cytosol that grow by incorporating lipids/proteins from cytosol
What is the role of peroxisomes? 1. Breakdown hydrogen peroxides 2. Inactivate toxic substances 3. Regulate oxygen concentration 4. Help in lipid synthesis/breakdown 5. Metabolize nitrogenous bases and carbs
What is the axoneme? The major portion of flagella and cilia containing 9 pairs of microtubules circling 2 lone microtubules
What is dynein? A protein that forms cross bridges of microtubules
What are the roles of microfilaments? 1. Contracting force in muscles 2. Cytoplasmic streaming 3. Phagocytosis 4. Microvillli movement
What are tight junctions? Junctions that forms a watertight seal blocking water, ions and other molecules
What are desmosomes? Junctions that join two cells at a single point and attach directly to cytoskeleton and found in cells that experience a lot of stress
What are the roles of an extracellular matrix? 1. Provide structural support 2. Determine cell shape and motility 3. Affect cell growth
What are the three classes of cells that make up animal cell matrices? 1. glycoaminoglycans and proteoglycans 2. structural proteins 3. adhesive proteins
What governes hormones? The endocrine system gorverns these
What governes neurotransmitters? The nervous system governs these
What is characteristic of neuronal communication? It is rapid, direct amd specific
What is characteristic of hormonal communication? It is slower, spread throughout the body and affect many cells/tissues in different ways
What compromises the nervous system? This is composed of the brain, spinal cord, nerves and neural support cells and certain sense organs
How can action potentials differ? They can differ in shape, durection and types of ions
How is a neurotransmitter removed? 1. Enzyme 2. Absorbed by presynaptic vell 3. Diffuse out of synaptic cleft
What are microglia? Glial cells that phagocytize microbes/debris in CNS
What are ependymal cells? Glial cells that are epithelial cells that line the space containing cerebrospinal fluid
What are satellite cells? Glial cells that support ganglia
What are astrocytes? Star-shaped shaped glial neuroglia om CNS that support neurons and help maintain mineral and nutrient balance
What is saltatory conduction? This is the jumping of an action potential from one node of Ranvier to the next
What are sensory (afferent) neurons? Neurons that receive signals from a receptor cell that interacts w/environment (located dorsally)
What are interneurons? Neurons that transfer signals from neuron to neuron
What are motor (efferent) neurons? Neurons that carry signals to muscles/glands (located ventrally)
What does the CNS consist of? This consist of interneurons and support tissue in brain and spinal cord
What is the function of the CNS? This system integrates signals from sensory and motor neurons
What is the somatic nervous system? The part of the PNS that responds to external environment
Where to the motor portions of the ANS conduct their signals? Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands
What does the sympathetic ANS deal with? "fight or flight" response
What does the parasympathetic ANS deal with? "rest and digest" response
What does the lower brain consist of? Medulla, hypothalamus, thalamus, and cerebellum
What is the role of the lower brain? To integrate subconscious activities
What does the higher brain consist of? The cerebrum/cerebral cortez
What is the role of the higher brain? To store memories and process thoughts
Created by: 1224000032