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Skeletal physiology

Many statements with "fill-in-the-blank" type questions to answer

Statement"Blank" answers
Skeletal system protects heart, lungs, brain
skeletal system's primary function structure/support
skeletal system produces cells in the marrow (red)
the blood cells in the skeletal system store and release calcium
calcium is required for ____ and ____ function muscle and nerve
Long bone shaft is called diaphysis
The knobs on the end of long bone shaft epiphysis
THe line where bone growth occurs epiphyseal line
ossifies means turns to bone
The holes in surface of bone for passage of blood vessels foramen
This membrane surrounds the bone and attaches to muscles and tendons periosteum
The synovial membranes surround the joints
Endostium surrounds the medullary canal
Medullary cavity contains bone marrow
joint capsules are filld with synovial fluid
concave pad of fibrous cartilage meniscus
knee is padded by fluid filled bags called bursa (sacs)
What binds bone to bone within a bone Ligaments
Bone cells are not supplied with nutrients with capillaries, because... It would make them very weak (too many holes in the bone)
Osteocytes live in little fluid pockets called... lacunae
Blood vessels run through the bone matrix longitudinally in... haversian canals
Bone matrix surrounds the haversian canals in layers or concentric circles called... lamellae
Bone matrix is comprised primarily of _____ and ____ Collagen fibers and calcium salts
A baked bone has no flexiblilty because... The collagen has been eliminated
Bones are kept as ____ as they need to be, and as ____ as they can be. Strong, light
When calcium salts are stressed, they produce a(n) _______, which attracts _____ Electrical field, osteoblasts
Osteoblasts do...what? Build up bone matrix
_____ a bone is necessary for it's maintenance and development Stressing
Unstressed parts of bone are eaten away by _____ Osteoclasts
Homeostasis also occurs in the blood supply of ____ Calcium
The hormone that increases blood calcium levels is called ______. It increases absorption of Calcium from the intestines, decreases filtration of Calcium in the kidneys, and increases the activity of osteoclasts Parathormone
The hormone that decreases blood Calcium levels is called ______ Calcitonin
When a bone breaks, it produces a bloody swelling called a ____ Fracture hematoma
The mass of cartilage and bone that forums internally after a fracture is called a(n)... Internal callus
The abnormally swollen parts of the area around a fracture also turns into cartilage, and is called the... External callus
Why do you WANT the osteoclasts to eat away the large chunk of strengthened bone formed after a fracture is healed? Next time, it could break in the wrong place, and cause even more severe damage
Rheumatoid arthritis begins with damage to the ____ _____ Articular cartilage
How does immobility (i.e. that caused by rheumatois arthritis) leads to further damage? Loss of synovial fluid
Myositis ossificiations is "abnormal ______" bone growth
"Heterotopic" means... "In the wrong place" (i.e. bone spurs)
If you get enough _____, _____, and _____, you can continue to grow bone, up until about the age of _____ calcium, vitamin D, physical stress, 22
Men lose about ___% of their bone per decade after the age of 40 3%
Woman lose about ___% of their bone density per decade after the age of 40 8%
Normal bone loss is called... Osteopenia
More-the-normal bone loss is called... Osteoperosis
Why is osteoperosis a problem with post-menopausal women? Estrogen loss (estrogen stimulates osteoblasts)
One visible symptom is kyphosis, which is _____ of the thoracic vertebrae compression
What is an allograft? Bone transfer from cadaver to patient
What is the most bone-like substance, besides bone, found in nature? Coral
Created by: BrandonDL