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Anatomy Vocab Ch8

Anatomy Vocab Ch8 Marieb

special senses smell, taste, sight, hearing; the four traditional senses
equilibrium the fifth sense; receptors housed in the inner ear and called vestibular apparatus; responds to various head movements
special sense receptors large, complex sensory organs (eyes and ears)or localized clusters of receptors (taste buds, olfactory epithelium)
accessory structures extrinsic eye muscles, eyelids, conjuctiva, lacrimal apparatus
eyelids meet at the medial and lateral corners of the eye, the medial and lateral commissure (canthus)
palpebral fissure the space between the eyelids in the open eye
tarsal gland sebaceous glands at the eyelid edge, produce oily secretion that lubricates the eye
ciliary gland modified sweat gland between the eyelashes
conjuctiva delicate membrane lining the eyelids and covering part of the outer surface of the eyeball
lacrimal apparatus lacrimal gland and a number of ducts that drain the lacrimal secretions into nasal cavity
lacrimal gland located above the lateral end of each eye, release tears onto the surface of the eyeball through several small ducts
lacrimal canaliculi tears flush across eyeball and into this first
lacrimal sac second drainage site for tears
nasolacrimal duct third stop for tears as they are flushed across the eyeball; empties into the nasal cavity
lysozyme antibodies contained in lacrimal secretions
extrinsic (external) eye muscles attached to the outer surface of each eye; lateral, medial, superior, inferior rectus and inferior and superior oblique
eyeball hollow sphere composed of three layers (fibrous, vascular,sensory), interior filled with humors that help maintain shape
fibrous layer outermost layer of the eyeball, the protective sclera and cornea
sclera protective, thick, glistening white connective tissue, the white of the eye
cornea the window through which light enters the eye, the most exposed part of the eye, is very vulnerable to damage
vascular layer middle layer of the eyeball; three regions, choroid, ciliary body and iris
choroid posterior region of the vascular layer, blood rich nutritive tunic containing dark pigment that prevents light from scattering inside the eye
ciliary body an extension of the choroid, smooth muscle structure
ciliary zonule suspensory ligament
iris the colored part of the eyeball, houses the pupil
pupil formed by smooth muscle fibers, act as the diaphragm of the camera, regulating the amount of light entering the eyeball
sensory layer innermost layer of the eyeball, containing the retina
retina two layers, pigmented layer, absorbing light and prevents light from scattering inside the eyeball; neural layer contains receptor cells, rods and cones (photoreceptors)
photoreceptors rod and cones of the inner eye
vision electrical signals passing from photoreceptors via bipolar and ganglion cells, leaving the retina via the optic nerve and to the optic cortex
optic disc (blind spot) where the optic nerve leaves the eyeball, light from an object is focused onto the disc causing the object to disappear from view
rods allow us to see gray tones in dim light, allow for peripheral vision
cones allow color under bright light conditions; three types each sensitive to particular wavelengths of light; impulses received at same time from more than one type is interpreted as intermediate color; when all three stimulated we see white
fovea contralis tiny pit that contains only cones, the point of greatest visual acuity or sharpest vision
color blindness lack of cones types cause this, most exclusively in men; is passed thru the genes
lens light entering the eye focuses on the retina by this; divided into two segments, aqueous and vitrous
cataracts vision becomes hazy and distorted eventually causing blindness if not corrected
aqueous humor the front of the lens containing a clear watery fluid
vitreous humor the back of the lens filled with a gel-like substance, prevents the eyeball from collapsing; helps to maintain interocular pressure
interocular pressure the pressure inside the eyeball
canal of Schlemm scleral venous sinus; located at the junction of sclera and cornea; absorption site for aqueous humor into the venous blood
glaucoma intraocular pressure increases to dangerous levels and compresses retina and optic nerve
tonometer measures intraocular pressure
ophthalmoscope illuminates the interior of the eyeball
refraction when light passes from one substance to another that has different density, speed changes and rays are bent
accommodation the ability of the eye to focus for close objects
optic nerve where bundling of axons issue from the back of the eyeball
optic chiasma where fibers from the medial side of each eye cross over to the opposite side of the brain
optic tract fibers synapse with neurons in the thalamus; see optic chiasma
optic radiation axons running to the occipital lobe of brain, carrying the vision message
binocular vision two-eyed vision, provides for depth perception
hemianopia loss of the same side of visual field of both eyes (tunnelvision)
eye muscles both internal and external, controlled by the autonomic nervous system
convergence the reflexive movement of the eyes medially when we view close objects
photopupillary reflex the reaction when eyes are suddenly exposed to bright light, the pupils constrict; prevents bright light from damaging the photoreceptors
accomodation pupillary reflex provides for acute vision, when the pupils constrict when viewing close objects
emmetropia harmonious vision; the eyes focus correctly
myopia nearsightedness
hyperopia farsightedness
astigmatism unequal curvatures in the cornea or lens, causing blurry images
receptors pain, thermo, mechano, chemo, electromagnetic
fundus posterior wall of the eye
mechanoreceptors receptors that respond to physical forces
equilibrium receptors keep nervous system up to date on position and movements of the head
ear divided into 3 area; outer ear, middle ear internal ear
hearing areas of the ear outer and middle ear
inner ear both equilibrium and hearing; bony chambers called osseous (bony) labyrinth, in the temporal bone behind the eye socket
outer (external) ear auricle and external acoustic meatus
auricle (pinna) shell shaped structure surrounding auditory canal of the ear
external acoustic meatus auditory canal; short narrow chamber carved into temporal bone of the skull
ceruminous glands skin lined walls of the external acoustic meatus
cerumen (earwax) waxy yellow secretion, provides sticky trap for foreign bodies and repels insects
tympanic membrane (eardrum) the end of the auditory canal separating the external from the middle ear
middle ear (tympanic cavity) small air-filled mucosa-lined cavity within temporal bone
oval and round windows of the middle ear; help with sound impulses
pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube runs downward to link middle ear cavity with the throat; yawning or swallowing can open it to equalize the pressure in middle ear
otitis media inflammation of the middle ear
myringotomy lancing of the eardrum
ossicles three smallest bones in the body, found in the tympanic cavity; hammer (malleus), anvil (incus), stirrup (stapes)
hammer (malleus) moves with the eardrum, transfering the vibration to the anvil
anvil (incus) passes the vibration from the hammer to the stirrup
stirrup (stapes) presses on the oval window of the inner ear, in response to vibrations passed from the hammer and anvil
osseous labyrinth bony chambers behind the eye socket; 3 parts- cochlea, vestibule and semicircular canals
cochlea spiral, pea-sized part of the bony labyrinth
vestibule between the cochlea and semicircular canal, a cavity
perilymph plasmalike fluid filling the bony labyrinth
membranous labyrinth system of membrane sacs suspended in the perilymph of the bony labyrinth
endolymph thicker fluid of the membranous labyrinth
vesibular apparatus two functional arms; static and dynamic equilibrium, work together for the balance of the body
maculae within the membrane sacs of the vestibule, essential to sense of static equilibrium; report on changes in position of head in relation to pull of gravity when body is at rest; patch of responsive hair cells
otolithic hair membrane hairs are embedded into this macula, jellylike mass studded with otoliths
otoliths tiny stones made of calcium salts
vestibular nerves impulses travel along this, from activation of hair cells telling the cerebellum of the brain that the position of the head has changed
dynamic equilibrium responds to rotary movement of the head, as in twirling or rough seas; receptors are found in semicircular canals; acts jointly with static equilibrium
ampula swollen region at the base of each membranous semicircular canal
crista ampullaris receptor region of the inner ear, base of each semicircular canal
cupula tuft of hair cells covered with gelatinous cap, the receptors on the crista ampullaris
vestibular nerve the sensory nerve from the cupula to the cerebellum, controls and adjusts for the sense of motion
static eqiulibrium balance concerned with the changes of position of the head; works with dynamic equilibrium
spiral organ or Cortie contains hearing receptors or hair cells
hair cells hearing receptors in the spiral organ of Corti
basilar membrane vibrations of the pressure waves set into motion in the inner ear are felt here; high pitched sound effects short hair fibers, low pitched sound effects long hair fibers
tectorial memebrane gel like membrane that lies over the hair cells
cochlear nerve impulses are transmitted along this to the auditory cortex in the temporal lobe
adapt stop responding to stimuli
deafness hearing loss of any degree; conduction (earwax or inflammation) and sensorineural (damage or degeneration)
otosclerosis ruptured eardrum
vertigo the sensation of spinning, causes ringing in the ears, nausea, inability to function
Meniere's syndrome serious pathology of the inner ear, causing vertigo or vertigo symptoms
chemoreceptors receptors for taste and olfaction
olfactory receptors receptors for sense of smell, occupy space the size of a postage stamp on roof of each nasal cavity
olfactory receptor cells neurons eqipped with olfactory hairs, long cilia that protrude from nasal epithelium, bathed in mucous
olfactory hairs cilia that transmit impulses
olfactory filaments bundled axons of olfactory neurons that make up the olfactory nerve
olfactory nerve made up of olfactory filaments, conducts the impulses to the olfactory cortex of the brain; closely tied into the limbic system, the emotional-visceral part of the brain
anosmias olfactory disorders
olfactory auras hallucinations experienced by some epileptics just before going into seizure
taste buds specific receptors for the sense of taste, widely scattered in the oral cavity, 10,000 taste buds, most on the tongue
papillae peglike projections on the tongue
circumvallate and fungiform papillae taste buds are found here, on the tongue
gustatory cells specific cells that respond to chemicals dissolved in the saliva, epithelial cells
gustatory hairs long microvilli of the gustatory cell
taste pore through which the sense of taste is transmitted to the brain
taste bud nerves facial (anterior part of tongue), glossopharyngeal and vagus
basal cells deep in the taste buds, replaced every seven to 10 days
taste receptors sweet, sour, bitter, umami(the flavor of monosodium glutimate), salt
strabismus cross-eyed
ophthlmia neonatorum baby conjunctivitis
presbyopia decreasing lens elasticity accompanying aging
Created by: erosok



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