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Anatomy Vocab Ch 7

Anatomy Vocab Ch 7 Marieb

QuestionAnswer
nervous system master controlling and communicating system of the body; considered by structure and functional classifications
sensory receptors monitor changes occuring inside and outside the body
stimuli actions that cause sensory receptors in the body to respond
sensory input information gathered by the sensory receptors; processes and interprets to decide what should be the correct response
integration the process of intrepreting sensory input and deciding what the response should be
motor output the response by way of muscle or gland reaction, to integration or sensory input
central nervous system (CNS) consists of brain and spinal cord, occupying the dorsal body cavity, integrating and command centers of the nervous system
peripheral nervous system (PNS) the nervous system outside the central nervous system, nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord
spinal nerves carry impulses to and from the spinal cord
cranial nerves carry impulses to and from the brain
afferent (sensory) nerves that convey impulses to the central nervous system from sensory receptors
somatic sensory fibers deliver impulses from the skin, skelatal muscles and joints; afferent division
visceral sensory fibers sensory fibers transmitting impulses from visceral organs; afferent division
efferent (motor) carry impulses away from the central nervous system to effect organs, muscles and glands
central nervous system (CNS) consists of brain and spinal cord, occupying the dorsal body cavity, integrating and command centers of the nervous system
peripheral nervous system (PNS) the nervous system outside the central nervous system, nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord
spinal nerves carry impulses to and from the spinal cord
cranial nerves carry impulses to and from the brain
afferent (sensory) nerves that convey impulses to the central nervous system from sensory receptors
somatic sensory fibers deliver impulses from the skin, skelatal muscles and joints; afferent division
visceral sensory fibers sensory fibers transmitting impulses from visceral organs; afferent division
efferent (motor) carry impulses away from the central nervous system to effect organs, muscles and glands
somatic nervous system allows conscious or voluntary control of skeletal muscles; AKA voluntary nervous system
autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulates events that are automatic, ie. smooth, cardiac and glands; AKA involuntary nervous system; parasympathetic and sympathetic having opposite effects
parasympathetic and sympathetic have opposite effects; actions of the autonomic nervous system
nervous tissue two types of cells, supporting and neurons
neuroglia nerve glue, support, insulate and protect neurons
glial cells (glia) neuroglia all having special functions; astrocytes, microglia, ependymal and oligodendrocytes; not able to transmit nerve impulses; never lose ability to divide
astrocytes star-shaped cells, account for almost half of neural tissue; swollen ends that cling to neurons; form the living barrier between capillaries and neurons
microglia spiderlike phagocytes that dispose of debris, dead brain cells, bacteria
ependymal line the central cavities of the brain and spinal cord; help circulate cerebrospinal fluid
oligodendrocytes wrap flat extensions around nerve fibers, produce fatty insulating coverings called myelin sheath
supporting cells of the PNS Schwann and Satellite cells
Schwann cells form the myelin sheath around nerve fibers
Satellite cells protective cushioning cells
neurons (nerve cells) transmit message (impulses) from one part of the body to another; all have cell body and extensions from outer membrane of the cell; are excited by neurotransmitters released by other neurons
cell body metabolic center of the neuron; contain abundant neurofibrils
Nissl substance rough ER of the cell body of the neuron
neurofibrils intermediate filaments that maintain cell body shape
neuron (parts of) cell body, processes, myelin sheaths
processes of the neuron armlike fibers microscopic to 3 feet long; convey messages; dendrites and axons
dendrite process that conveys incoming messages toward the cell body
axon process that conveys outgoing messages away from the cell body
axon hillock the process that arises from the axon for relaying messages
axon terminal terminals contain hundreds of vesicles containing neurotransmitters
neurotransmitter when stimulated released into extracellular space; chemicals that transmit messages
synaptic cleft what separates neurons from each other
synapse the junction of neurons
myelin sheath whitish, fatty material, protects and insulates fibers and increase transmission rate of nerve impulses
neurilemma external to the myelin sheath, part of the Schwann cell, "neuron husk"
nodes of Ranvier indentations of the myelin sheath between the joints of the Schwann cells
nuclei clusters of cell bodies in the central nervous system
ganglia small collections of cell bodies, in a few sites outside the CNS in the PNS
tracts bundles of nerve fibers or neuron processes of the CNS
white matter consists of dense collections of myelinated fibers of the CNS
gray matter contains mostly unmyelinated fibers and cell bodies in the CNS
receptors activated by specific changes occurring nearby
cutaneous sense organs receptors of the skin; ie. pain receptors
proprioceptors sensory receptors of the muscles and tendons; detect the amount of stretch or tension in skeletal muscles, tendons, joints; advise our brains of our own movements
interneuron (association neurons) connect the motor and sensory neurons in neural pathways, always found in CNS
multipolar neuron neuron having several processes extending from the cell body; most common structural type of neuron
bipolar neuron neuron with two processes, an axon and dendrite; rare in adults
unipolar neuron have a single process emerging from cell body; conducts nerve impulses both toward and away from the cell body; found in PNS
nerve impulses irritability and conductivity
polarized a resting or inactive neuron; fewer positive ions on the inner face of the neuron's plasma membrane than on the outer face
cell ions positive ions inside cell are potassium (K+), ions on outside of cell sodium (Na+)
sodium ions (sodium entry) when neuron is stimulated the sodium channels in cell membrane open allowing diffusion into the neuron changing polarization
depolarization the changing of polarity of the neuron's membrane
graded potential the rate of potential change when positive and less positive balance
repolarization the outflow of positive ions restoring the electrical condition at the membrane to a resting state; neurons cannot conduct another response until repolarization
electrochemical event transmission of an impulse
reflexes raid, predictable and involuntary responses to stimuli; always go in the same direction
reflex arcs neural pathway involving both CNS and PNS structures
somatic reflex all reflexes that stimulate the skeletal muscles
autonomic relfex regulate the activity of digestion, elimination, blood pressure and sweating
integration center the synapse between the sensory and motor neurons, found in the CNS
knee-jerk response two-neuron reflex arc, simplest found in humans
flexor or withdrawal freflex three-neuron reflex arc; five elements: receptor, sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron and effector
nervous system disorder reflexes become exaggerated, distorted, or absent; often occur before pathological condition is found
neural tube central nervous system embryonic form of spinal cord and brain
ventricles chambers of the brain
brain largest and most complex mass of nervous tissue in the body, weighs just over three pounds
regions of the brain cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, cerebellum
cerebrum the paired cerebral hemispheres, superior part of the brain, the largest of the brain regions
gyri elevated ridges of tissue covering the cerebral hemispheres
sulci shallow grooves found in the gyri
fissures deep grooves separating regions of the brain
longitudinal fissure separates the cerebral hemispheres
regions of cerebral hemisphere cortex, white matter, basal nuclei
cerebral cortex control speech, memory, logical and emotional response, consciousness, interpretation of sensation, voluntary movement
primary somatic sensory area in the cerebral cortex, in the parietal lobe; impulses from body's sensory receptors localized and interpreted here; recognize pain, cold, light touch
sensory homunculus spatial map, upside down or reverse in the sensory area
occipital lobe visual area of the cerebral cortex
temporal lobe auditory area of the cerebral cortex
primary motor area allows us to consciously move skeletal muscles
corticospinal (pyramidal) tract motor tract descending to the spinal cord
motor homunculus the body map of the motor cortex
Broca's area specialized cortical area involved in ability to speak
speech area located at the junction of temporal, parietal and occipital lobes
frontal lobe part of the cerebral cortex involved with language comprehension
cerebral gray matter contains cell bodies found only in cerebrum, of cerebral cortex
cerebral white matter composed of fiber tracts carrying impulses to or from within the cortex
corpus callosum large fiber tract connects cerebral hemispheres; AKA commisures; allows cerebral hemispheres to communicate with each other
association fiber tracts connect areas within a hemisphere
projection fiber tracts connect cerebrum with lower central nervous system centers
basal nuclei (basal ganglia) islands of gray matter deep within the white matter of cerebral hemisphere; help regulate voluntary motor activity
diencephalon (interbrain) sits atop the brain stem, enclosed by cerebral hemispheres; major structures are thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus
thalamus encloses shallow third ventricle of brain, relay station for sensory impulses passing to the sensory cortex
hypothalamus (see limbic system) under the thalamus, makes up floor of the diencephalon; plays a role in regulation of body temperature, water balance and metabolism; center of drives and emotions
limbic system hypothalamus, the emotional-visceral brain, controls thirst, appetite, sex drive, pain, pleasure centers
pituitary gland hangs from the anterior floor of the hypothalamus; produces hormones
mammillary bodies reflex centers involved in olfaction, sense of smell
epithalamus forms the roof of third ventricle; contain pineal body and choroid plexus; forms cerebrospinal fluid
brain stem 3 inches long; structures are midbrian, pons, medulla oblongata; provides a pathway for ascending and descending tracts, contains small gray matter areas; control activities breathing, blood pressure.
midbrain relatively small part of the brain stem, extends from mammillary bodies to pons;
cerebral aqueduct tiny canal that travels through midbrain and connects third ventricle of diencephalon the fourth venticle
cerebral peduncles little feet of the cerebrum, convey ascending and descending impulses
corpora quadrigemina four rounded protrusions, bulging neuclei; reflex centers involved with vision and hearing
pons rounded structure protruding just below midbrain; means bridge; mostly fiber tracts; involved in the control of breathing
medulla oblongata most inferior part of brain stem, merges into spinal cord; contains nuclei that regulate vital visceral activities; control center for heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, swallowing, vomiting
retucular formation entire length of the brain stem, diffuse mass of gray matter, involved in motor control of visceral organs
reticular activating system (RAS) plays a role in consciouness and awake/sleep cycles
cerebellum cauliflower-like, has two hemispheres, provides precise timing for skeletal muscle activity and controls balance and equilibrium; continuously compares brains intentions with body performance
meninges connective tissue membrane covering and protecting the brain; the dura mater, arachnoid mater and pia mater
dura mater outermost layer of the meninges, leathery, has different layers
periosteal layer of the dura mater, is attached to the inner surface of the skull
meningeal layer of the dura mater, forms the outermost covering of the brain and continues as the dura mater of the spinal cord
dural venous sinuses collect venous blood, separation areas of the periosteal and meningeal layers of the dura mater
falx cerebri one of the folds that attach the brain to the cranial cavity
tentorium cerebelli separates the cerebellum from the cerebrum
arachnoid mater middle weblike meningeal layer
subarachnoid space the space between the arachnoid and pia mater; is filled with cerebrospinal fluid
pia mater delicate, clings tightly to surface of the brain and spinal cord, follows every fold
arachnoid villi protrude through the dura mater, absorbs venous blood in the dural sinuses
meningitis inflammation of the meninges, serious threat to the brain
encephalitis brain inflammation, spreading into the nervous tissue of the central nervous system
cerebrospinal fluid similar to blood plasma, contains less protein and more vitamin C, formed from blood by the choroid pexuses; forms a cushion that protects the fragile nervous tissue
hydrocephalus water on the brain; causes the head to enlarge as the brain increases in size
blood-brain barrier the least permeable capillaries in the body; almost seamlessly bound together by tight junctions of water-soluble substances so that only water based stubstances can pass thru; super tight protection of the brain
concussion when brain injury is slight, no permanent brain damage
contusion the result of tissue destruction
intracranial hemorrhage bleeding from ruptured vessels
cerebral edema swelling of the brain due to inflammatory response to injury
cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) stroke
Alzheimer's disease progressive degenerative disease of the brain resulting in dementia
Parkinson's disease results from a degeneration of the dopamine-releasing neurons of the substantia nigra; neuclei become overactive
hemiplegia one-sided paralysis
aphasia loss of ability to speak
temporary ischemic attack restriction of blood flow, temporary, symptoms as numbness, temproary paralysis, impaired speech; "red flag" of impending stroke (CVA)
spinal cord approx 17 inches long, the continuation of the brain stem; two-way conduction pathway to and from the brain, major reflex center
cauda equina spinal nerves at the inferior end of the vertebral canal; looks like a horse's tail
gray matter of the spinal cord looks like a butterfly or the letter H in cross section; dorsal (posterior) horns, ventral (anterior) horns; gray matter surrounds the central canal of the cord
dorsal root where the sensory neuron is under the spinal cord
dorsal root ganglion the enlarged area of the dorsal root
ventral root contains the cell bodies of motor neurons of the somatic nervous system
spinal nerves where the dorsal and ventral roots fuse
flaccid paralysis nerve impulses do not reach the muscles affected, no vountary movement is possible
spastic paralysis affected muscles stay healthy because they are stimulated by spinal reflex arcs, movement is involuntary and not controllable
white matter of the spinal cord 3 columns: dorsal, lateral and ventral
endoneurium a delicate connective tissue sheath surrounding a neuron fiber
perineurium course connective tissue wrapping, surrounding the neuron fiber
fascicles nerve fiber bundles
mixed nerves nerves carrying both sensory and motor nerve fibers
cranial nerves serve primarily the head and neck, numbered in their order
dorsal and ventral rami the division of the spinal nerve containing both motor and sensory fibers
plexuses complex network of nerves
preganglionic axon the axon before the ganglion
postganglionic axon the extention of the pre. axon to the organ it serves
sympathetic division mobilizes the body during extreme situations such as fear, exercise or rage
parasympathetic division allows us to unwind and conserve energy
pelvic splanchnic nerves pelvic nerves, leaving the spinal cord and traveling to the pelvic cavity
sympathetic division fight-or-flight system; activity is evident when we are excited or find ourselves in threatening situations
parasympathetic division most active when the body is at rest and not threatened; resting-and-digesting state; housekeeping period for the body
cerebral palsy neuromuscular disability in which the voluntary muscles are poorly controlled and spastic due to brain damage
anencephaly failure of the cerebrum to develop, resulting in child who cannot hear, see or process sensory input
spina bifida vertebrae form incompletely; several varieties, the worst leaves the spinal cord functionless
orthostatic hypotension the body's inability to react quickly to counteract the pull of gravity, low blood pressure resulting from changes in postion (lightheadedness)
arteriosclerosis cause a decrease in supply of oxygen to the brain neurons
senility forgetfulness, irritability, difficulty in concentration or thinking clearly
Created by: erosok