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Chapter 4 - Marieb

QuestionAnswer
Epithelial tissue has what 5 characteristics? polarity, specialized contacts, supported by connective tissue, avascular, but innervated, and regenerated constantly
What are the classifications of epithelium? simple (one layer) and stratified (more than one layer)
What is the apical surface? upper free surface exposed to body exterior or cavity
Name the 4 types of simple epithelia Simple squamous, simple cuboidal, simple columnar, pseudostratified columnar
What type of epithelium is like floor tile and found in the air sacs of lungs and kidney glomerulus? simple squamous epithelium
what kind of epithelium is found in the cubits of the kidney, the sweat and oil glands and ducts? simple cuboidal epithelium
What epithelium is found in the digestive trace, bronchi and uterus? Simple columnar epithelium
What epithelium is found int the trachea and upper respiratory tract? pseudostratified epithelium
What epithelium is found in the lining of the esophagus, mouth, vagina and skin? stratified squamous epithelium
What epithelium is found in the bladder and uterus? Transitional epithelium
What kind of connective tissue packages the organs and surrounds capillaries? areolar
What kind of connective tissue is found under the skin, around the kidneys, around the eyeballs, w/in the abdomen and in the breasts? adipose
What kind of connective tissue is found in the lymph nodes, bone marrow and spleen reticular
What kind of connective tissue attaches bone to bone and tendon to bone? dense regular
What kind of connective tissue is found in the dermis, submucosa of the digestive tract, in the fibrous capsule of organs and joints? dense irregular
What kind of connective tissue forms embryonic skeleton and costal cartilage? hyaline cartilage
What kind of connective tissed form the external ear and epiglottis elastic cartilage
What kind of connective tissue forms intervetebral discs, discs of the knee joints? fibrocartilage
osseous bone
blood vessels
Name the five layers of the skin - deep to superficial stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale, dermis
Name the 4 types of stratified epithelium stratifies - squamous, columnar, cuboidal, transitional
Name the two types of glandular epithelium exocrine and endocrine glands
Where do you find merocrine glands, what are they - what do they secrete? forehead, upper lip - salt and water
Where do you find holocrine glands - where do you find them - what do they secrete? armpit, groin; salt, water, sebaceous fluid, pieces of cells, and milk-like secretion - no odor
What is the difference between the endocrine and exocrine system endocrine system diffuses directly into the bloodstream WITHOUT tubes and ducts; exocrine system has tubes and ducts; sebaceous glands.
what are the 3 characteristics of connective tissue common origin, varying degree of vascularity and extracellular matrix
name three types of fibers collagen, elastic and reticular
what type of fiber breaks before stretching is shiny and strong; attaches muscle to bone collagen
what type of fiber stretches before breaking is yellowish and is found in the tip of the nose and ear? elastic fibers
What type of fiber is net-like and found in the spleen Reticular fibers
'blasts' do what produce something - osteoblasts produce bone
what kind of tissue is used to store energy adipose
what kind of tissue is organized, makes up tendons and ligaments and is made up of collagen regular tissue
what type of tissue is i the joint capsule and is fibrous - goes all directions irregular
cartilage is made up of what? protein/chondrin
what is an osteon circular tubes that run through the bone
what is the liquid portion of the blood called plasma
caries nerve impulse AWAY from the cell body axon
carries impulse TOWARD the cell body dendrite
what type of muscle tissue is involuntary, striated and intercalcated cardiac
what type of muscle tissue is non-striated and lines the digestive tract and is involuntary smooth
what type of muscle tissue is voluntary skeletal
name three types of membranes cutaneous, serous and mucous
membrane that opens to the outside mucous
membrane that does not open to the outside serous
Steps of Tissue Repair Inflammation, swelling, redness, heat
Steps of Tissue regeneration Inflammation, restore blood supply, fibrosis
what types of cells do not regenerate neurons
name the three layers of the embryonic disc ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm
endoderm lining of digestive tract and respiratory tract
ectoderm skin and nervous system
mesoderm connective tissue, bone, tissue, organs
epidermis is made up of what kind of epi. stratified squamous epithelium
keratinocyte waterproofing - do we don't leak out
Langerhans' cells macrophage
Merkel cells sensitive to light touch
melanocyte produce nelanin
2 layers of dermis papillary layer (20%) and reticular layer 80%
sudoriferous sweat
three layers of the hair from deepest to superficial medulla, cortex, cuticle
where is the arrector pili muscle found and to what is it attached epidermis, hair follicle, it is involuntary
vellus hair on head, women and children - fine
terminal eyebrows, coarse
skin needs to be exposed to sunlight to create vitamin D to synthesize calcium
whooping cough destroys what apparatus ciliary escalator
chromatin is threadlike when not involved in mitosis
chromosomes look .like what when they are involved in mitosis scrunched up, compact
mRNA transcription
tRNA translation
rRNA quality control
apoptosis getting rid of old, unneeded cells
what kind of tissue is avascular, innervated epithelial
Is bone or cartilage tissue more vasvular bone
platelets help blood do what clot
describe skeletal muscle voluntary striated
describe smooth muscle involuntary, non striated
describe cardiac muscle involuntary, striated, intercalcated
tissue repair HIFF - form hematoma, inflammation, formation of blood vessels, fibrosis (scar tissue)
epidermolysis bullosa hereditary disorder - faulty synthesis if keratin, collagen
healing by first intention simplest type of healing 0 edged of wound brought together by sutures to close surgical incision - only small granulations need to be formed
healing by second intention wound edged remain separated, gap is bridged by large amounts of granulation tissue, the manner in which unattended wounds head. Healing slower than when edged brought together and larger scars form
keloid abnormal proliferation of connective tissue during healing of skin wounds; results in large unsightly mass of scar tissue at the skin surface
sarcoma cancer arising in the mesenchyme-derived tissues, that is , in connective tissues and muscle
What type of tissue us the cover lining and glandular issue of the body. epithelial
what type of tissue has the functions of protection, absorption, excretion, filtration, secretion and sensory receptors? epithelial
single later of cells, highly adapted for filtration and exchange of substances forms walls of air sacs of lings and lines blood vessels contributes to serosae as mesothelium and lines all hollow circulatory system organs as endothelium simple squamous epithelium
commonly active in secretion and absorption found in glands and kidney tubules simple cuboidal epithelium
specialized for secretion and absorption, consists of a single layer of tall columnar cells that exhibit microvilli and often goblet cells. lines most of the digestive tract simple columnar epithelium
appears stratifies, ciliated variety, rich in goblet cells, lines most of the upper respirator passages pseudostratified columnar epithelium
multi-layered, able to resist abrasion, lines the esophagus and vagina, keratinized variety forms the skin epidermis stratified squamous epithelium
adaptation to stretch lines hollow urinary system organs transitional epithelium
glands are classified on basis of site release and by cell classification - classify them multicellular (holocrine or merocrine), unicellular (goblet) and exo or endocrine
goblet cells unicellular glands that secrete mucus
most abundant tissue and widely distributed tissue of the body, function is to support, protect, bind, insulate, and transport connective tissue
connective tissue exhibits extracellular matrix ands cells
extracellular matrix consists of ground substance and fibers - may be fluid-like or firm
chief cell type of connective tissue fibroblast
three kinds of loose connective tissue adipose, reticular, and areolar
two kinds of dense connective tissue dense regular - tendons and dense irregular - dermis and organ capsules
branching cells that receive and transmit electrical impulses, involved in body regulation neurons
elongated cells specialized to contract and cause movement muscle tissue
cylindrical and striated cells skeletal muscle
branched and striated cells cardiac muscle
spindle shaped and lack striated cells smooth muscle
the body's response to injury inflammation
mesoderm muscle and connective
ectoderm nervous
avascular sheet of keratinized squamous epithelium epidermis
where will you find these: keratinocytes, melaoncytes, Merkel cells? epidermis
the strata of the skin from deep to superficial are: basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, corneum
which layer of skin is absent in thin skin - apparent only in hands and feet? lucidum
composed of dense, irregular tissue - supplied w blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and hair follicles dermis
epidermal ridged produce fingerprints
exhibits dermal papillae and dermal ridges papillary layer
connective tissue fibers are much more densely interwoven in what later reticular layer
skin color reflect the amount of pigment/melanin in the skin
skin appendages hair, follicles, mails and glands
merocrine sweat glands thermoregulation, salt solution upper lip
holocrine sweat glands armpit and groin, salt and water and fatty substances no smell
sebaceous glands produce sebum, empty into hair follicle, none on palms soles of feet
sebum waterproofing
skin has 6 major functions protection, body temp regulation, cutaneous sensation, metabolic functions, blood reservoir, excretion
most common skin disorders infection
most common cause of skin cancer exposure to UV
epidermis develops from embryonic ectoderm
dermis develops from embryonic mesoderm
skin color is determined by amount of blood, pigments AND oxygenation level of blood
skin surface markings reflect points of tight dermal attachment called tension lines
which epidermal cell is most numerous keratinocytes
which cell function s as a part of the immune system Langerhans' cells
sensations of touch and pressure are located in what layer of skin dermis
papillary layer is not tough true
are sensory receptors present in the epidermis no
you can cut hair without pain because the shaft of hair is made of dead cells
best suited for areas subject to friction stratified squamous
propels substances across its surface pseudostratified ciliated columnar
most suited for rapid diffusion simple squamous
tubules of kidneys simple cuboidal
stretches transitional
lines the small and large intestines simple columnar
what muscle is voluntary, cylindrical, many-nucleate, striated, and produces movement skeletal muscle
what muscle is striated, branching, uninucleate, intercalcated, involuntary cardiac muscle
what muscle is spindle-shaped, active during birth, is in the wall of the bladder and stomach, and arranged in sheets smooth muscle
tissue groups of cells that are similar in structure and perform a common or related function
4 kinds of tissue connective, nervous, muscle, epithelial
functions of 4 kinds of tissue covering, support, movement ad control (nervous)
do any organs contain all 4 types of tissue yes, most do
what does it mean to fix a slide preserve human tissue
why do you section tissue you cut it in slices small enough for to transmit light or electrons
why do you stain tissue samples to provide contrast to the image
what is an artifact of a structure (slide) a minor distortion - an alteration from its original appearance
epithelial tissue sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity
epithelial functions protection, absorption, filtration, excretion. secretion. and sensory reception
basal lamina found in epithelium, non-cellular, acts as a selective filter that determines which molecules get through from underlying connective tissue to enter epi. also acts as scaffolding so epi cells can migrate to wound repair
all epithelial sheets rest upon and are supported by what connective tissue
epithelium has great apical-basal ____ polarity
each epithelium is give two names. the first indicated the number of ____. the second describes the shape of the ___ cells. cells.
the nucleus of the cell confirms to the shape of the cell. so keep nuclear shape in mind when trying to identify tissue samples
simple epithelium absorption, secretion and filtration because they consist of a single layer and are usu. very thin - not good at protection
simple squamous epithelium looks like tile floor; good for rapid diffusion, kidneys, lungs
endothelium inner covering lymphatic vessels and hollow organs of cardio sys
mesothelium epi found is serous membrane lining ventral body cavity and its organs
simple cuboidal epithelium as tall as wide, spherical nuclei, stained darkly, secretion and absorption
basal lamina found in epithelium, non-cellular, acts as a selective filter that determines which molecules get through from underlying connective tissue to enter epi. also acts as scaffolding so epi cells can migrate to wound repair
all epithelial sheets rest upon and are supported by what connective tissue
epithelium has great apical-basal ____ polarity
each epithelium is give two names. the first indicated the number of ____. the second describes the shape of the ___ cells. cells.
the nucleus of the cell confirms to the shape of the cell. so keep nuclear shape in mind when trying to identify tissue samples
simple epithelium absorption, secretion and filtration because they consist of a single layer and are usu. very thin - not good at protection
simple squamous epithelium looks like tile floor; good for rapid diffusion, kidneys, lungs
endothelium inner covering lymphatic vessels and hollow organs of cardio sys
mesothelium epi found is serous membrane lining ventral body cavity and its organs
simple cuboidal epithelium as tall as wide, spherical nuclei, stained darkly, secretion and absorption, ducts of glands and kidney tubules
simple columnar epithelium soldiers in a row, lines digestive tract, absorption and secretion, goblet cells and microvilli,
pseudostratified columnar epithelium only looks stratified - not - connected to basement membrane - secretes or absorbs, some ciliated
stratifies epithelium regenerated from which layer basal layer - below
what is the most widespread of the stratified epithelial stratified squamous epithelium
stratified squamous epithelium skin and short openings of skin, keratinized
Is secretion and active or non-active process active, usually water-based, containing proteins
exocrine glands secrete their product where onto body surface or into body cavity,unicellular (goblet) by exocytosis and multicellular by the epithelium
only unicellular exocrine gland goblet cell
goblet cell secretes what mucin, which breaks down into water into mucus
secretes by exocytosis, sweat, pancreas, salivary merocrine
accumulates products until it ruptures, gland secretions, plus dead cell frags holocrine
what tissue is found everywhere in the body connective
4 classes of connective tissue connective tissue, bone, cartilage and blood
major functions of connective tissue binding and support protect, insulate, transport
all connective tissue arises from mesenchyme (embryonic tissue)
connective tissue is mostly nonliving extracellular matrix
three main elements of connective tissue ground substance and fibers - may be fluid-like or firm and cells
what type of tissue is the prototype for all other types of connective tissues areolar
ground substance unstructured material that fills spaces between cell and contains fibers
white fibers, stronger than steel fibers, highly tensile,white fibers collagen
skin, lungs, blood vessels walls, yellow fibers, stretch elastic fibers
surround small blood vessels and support soft tissues of organs, fuzzy nets reticular fibers
what kind of blast makes up these tissues: cartilage, blood, bone, connective tissue hematopoietic stem cell, osteoblast, chondroblast, and fibroblast
dense connective tissues include dense irregular, dense regular and elastic
areolar tissue loose arrangement (loose connective tissue)
adipose tissue chicken wire appearance - better storehouse for nutrients than areolar, richly vascularized, 18% of ave. person's weight
white fat stores nutrients
brown fat contains abundant mitochondria which use the lipid fuels t heat the bloodstream to warm the body rather than produce ATP
reticular fibers are found____, reticular tissue is found__ throughout the body; spleen
how often do we sweat continuously and unnoticeably at rest
pacinian corpuscles deeper dermis or hypodermis - contact receptor - bumps, deep pressure
meissner and merkel dermal papillae - light touch
_____ cannot be absorbed from the digestive tract without ____ calcium; vitamin D
Created by: MamaMia