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Special Senses

Hearing and Vision

Sclera white portion of eye, outer covering that protects eye
aqueous humor produced by choriod plexus, supplies oxygen to lens and cornea
viterous humor jelly-like, transmits light, does not undergo replacement
Lens posterior to iris, fine tunes refraced light, serves to focus light on retina
Fibrous tunic outer coat of eyeball: sclera and cornea
Vascular tunic middle layer: choroid, ciliary body, iris
Choroid has dark brown pigments to aborb light, vascular to give nutrients to other tunics
ciliary body smooth muscles which control lens shape for near and far vision, connected to lens by suspensory ligaments
iris between cornea and lens, regulates the amount of light entering the eye
Sensory tunic retina: photoreceptors, bipolar cells, ganglion cells
light refraction degree of refraction depends on curvature of the interface between two media
curvature of cornea curvature is constant allowing for 75% of images to focus on the reinta
curvature of lens allows for fine tunign of the image
accomodation ability of eyes to keep image focused on retina as the distance between eye and object is changed
20 feet of more ciliary muscles relax and lens is stretched
closer than 20 feet ciliary muscles contract and lens is rounder , light rays are refracted more
Myopia/nearsightedness lighted is refracted in front of the retina, use concave lens to diverge light
Hyperpia/farsightedness light is refracted beyond retina, use convex lens to converge light
Rods peipheral vision, shape discrimination/movement, night vision
Fovea centralis contains only cones (sharpness of vision, color vision)
Photoreceptors: rods and cones outer segment = photpigments (proteins) that undrego changes upon light absorption, and inner segment = continous with cell body
Photopigments change shape as they absorb light, resynthensized in circadian rhythm
Rods produce new discs in morning/first light
Cones produce new discs at night
Rhodpsin the only photopigment of rods, contains retinal (pigment) and opsin (protein)
Opsin light absorbing poriton of all visual photopigments
Retinal exists in two forms 11-cis-retinal and all-trans-retinal, converts to all-trans with light
Tympanic membrane (eardrum) boundary between the outer and middle ear
Tympanic cavity contains oval (vestibular) window and round (cochlear) window
Bony labyrinth bony cavity: vestibule, semicircular canals, cochlea. Contains perilymph
Membranous labyrinth inside the bony, floats in perillymph from bony and contains endolymph
vestibule contains oval window, has membranous sacs for equilibirum: acceleration and head position
Otolith organs within vestibule: utricle (horizontal acceleration) and saccule (vertical acceleration)
Semicircular canals contious with the vestibule, contains cupula (rotational acceleration)
Cochlea anterior to vestibule, contains receptor organs for hearing
Organ of Corti receptor organ for hearing (endolymph)
Scala vestibuli continous with the vestuble and oval window (perilymph)
Scala tympani contious with the scala vestibule (perilymph)
Loudness measured in wave amplitude
Created by: mmason



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