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Digestive/Urinary

Anatomy

QuestionAnswer
mouth begins preparation of food for digestion
pharynx transports food from the mouth to the esophagus
esophagus transports food from the pharynx to the stomach
stomach breaks down food & mixes it with digestive juices
small intestine completes digestion & absorption of most nutrients
large intestine absorbs excess water & prepares solid waste for elimination
rectum & anus control the excretion of solid waste
liver secretes bile & enzymes to aid in the digestion of fats
gallbladder stores bile & releases it to the small intestine as needed
pancreas secretes digestive juices & enzymes into small intestine as needed
The major structures of the digestive system include: oral cavity (mouth), pharynx (throat), esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum & anus
The accessory organs of the digestive system include: liver, gallbladder & pancreas
gastr/o stomach
intestin intestine
-al pertaining to
upper GI tract consists of the mouth, esophagus & stomach
lower GI tract is made up of: the small & large intestines (sometimes referred to as the bowels) plus the rectum & anus
The major structures of the oral cavity: AKA the mouth, are the lips, hard & soft palates, salivary glands, tongue, teeth & the periodontium
lips AKA labia, form the opening to the oral cavity
The lips also have important roles in: breathing, speaking & the expression of emotions
palate forms the roof of the mouth
hard palate is the bony anterior portion of the palate that is covered with specialized mucous membrane
rugae are irregular ridges or folds in this mucous membrane
soft palate is the flexible posterior portion of the palate. It has the important role of closing off the nasal passage during the swallowing to prevent food & liquid from moving upward into the nasal cavity
uvula hangs from the free edge of the soft palate. During the swallowing, it moves upward with the soft palate. It also plays an important role in snoring & in the formation of some speech sounds
tongue is very strong, flexible & muscular. It aids in speech & moves food during chewing & swallowing.
dorsum the upper surface of the tongue
papillae small bumps on the dorsum
sublingual surface of the tongue & the tissues that lie under the tongue are covered with delicate highly vascular tissues
it is the presence of this rich blood supply under the tongue that makes it suitable for administering certain medications by placing them sublingually where they are quickly absorbed into the bloodstream
periodontium consists of the bones & soft tissues that surround & support the teeth
gingiva commonly known as the gums, is the specialized mucous membrane that surrounds the teeth, covers the bone of the dental arches & lines the cheeks
dentition refers to the natural teeth arranged in the upper & lower jaws
incisors & canines AKA cuspids; used for biting & tearing
bicuspids & molars used for chewing & grinding
primary dentition AKA the deciduous dentition or baby teeth, consists of 20 teeth that are normally lost during childhood & replaced by the permanent teeth. These teeth include: 8 incisors, 4 canines, 8 molars & no premolars
permanent dentition consists of 32 teeth that are designed to last a lifetime. These teeth include: 8 incisors, 4 canines, 8 premolars & 12 molars
edentulous means without teeth
crown the portion of a tooth that is visible in the mouth
enamel hardest substance in the body; what teeth are covered with
roots hold the tooth securely in place within the dental arch
salivary glands secrete saliva that is carried by ducts into the mouth
parotid glands located on the face in front of & slightly lower than each ear
sublingual glands & their ducts are located on the floor of the mouth under the tongue
submandibular glands & their ducts are located on the floor of the mouth near the mandible
esophagus is the muscular tube through which ingested food passes from the pharynx to the stomach
lower esophageal sphincter AKA the cardiac sphincter or the gastroesophageal sphincter, is the muscular ring controls the flow between the esophagus & the stomach
stomach is a sac-like organ composed of the fundus (upper rounded part), body (main portion) & antrum (lower part)
rugae are the folds in the mucosa lining the stomach. Glands located within these folds produce gastric juices that aid in digestion & mucus to create a protective coating on the lining of the stomach
pylorus is the narrow passage that connects the stomach with the small intestine
pyloric sphincter is the ring-like muscle that controls the flow from the stomach to the duodenum of the small intestine
small intestine extends from the pyloric sphincter to the first part of the large intestine
Size of the small intestine: a coiled organ up to 20 feet in length
The small intestine consists of 3 sections where food is digested & the nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream
duodenum is the first portion of the small intestine. It extends from the pylorus to the jejunum.
jejunum is the middle portion of the small intestine. It extends from the duodenum to the ileum.
ileum is the last & longest portion of the small intestine, extends from the jejunum to the cecum of the large intestine.
large intestine extends from the end of the small intestine to the anus. It is about twice as wide as the small intestine, but only 1/4 as long.
The major parts of the large intestine are: cecum, colon, rectum & anus
cecum is a pouch that lies on the right side of the abdomen
ileocecal sphincter is the ring-like muscle that controls the flow from the ileum of the small intestine into the cecum of the large intestine
vermiform appendix commonly called the appendix, hangs from the lower portion of the cecum.
vermiform refers to a worm-like shape
colon the longest portion of the large intestine
ascending colon travels upward from the cecum to the undersurface of the liver
ascending means upward
transverse colon passes horizontally from right to left toward the spleen
transverse means across
descending colon travels down the left side of the abdominal cavity to the sigmoid colon
descending means downward
sigmoid colon is an S-shaped structure that continues from the descending colon above & joins with the rectum below
rectum the widest division of the large intestine, makes up the last 4 inches of the large intestin & ends up at the anus
anus the lower opening of the digestive tract. The flow of waste through the anus is controlled by the internal anal sphincter & the external anal sphincter
anorectal refers to the anus & rectum as a single unit
an/o means anus
rect means rectum
-al means pertaining to
liver a large organ located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen; removes toxins from the blood & turning food into the fuel & nutrients the body needs
The liver removes excess glucose commonly known as blood sugar from the bloodstream & stores it as glycogen, which is a form of starch
When the blood sugar level is low, the liver converts glycogen back into glucose & releases it for use by the body
bilirubin the pigment produced from the destruction of hemoglobin, is released by the liver in bile
bile aids in the digestion of fats, is a digestive juice secreted by the liver
biliary tree provides the channels through which bile is transported from the liver to the small intestine
biliary means pertaining to bile
common hepatic duct known as the trunk
The bile travels from the liver through the common hepatic duct to the gallbladder where it enters & exits through the narrow cystic duct
common bile duct formed by the cystic duct leaving the gallbladder rejoins the common hepatic duct
pancreatic duct the common bile duct joins here & together they enter the duodenum of the small intestine
gallbladder a pear-shaped organ about the size of an egg located under the liver
cholecystic means pertaining to the gallbladder
cholecyst means gallbladder
pancreas a soft 6 inch long oblong gland that is located behind the stomach; this gland has important roles in both the digestive & endocrine systems
The pancreas produces & secretes pancreatic juices that aid in digestion & contain sodium bicarbonate to help neutralize stomach acids & digestive enzymes
pancreatic duct the pancreatic juices leave the pancreas through here that joins the common bile duct
digestion the process by which complex foods are broken down into nutrients in a form the body can use
digestive enzymes are responsible for the chemical changes that break foods down into simpler forms of nutrients for use by the body
metabolism includes all of the processes involved in the body's use of nutrients
metabol means change
metabolism consists of 2 parts: anabolism & catabolism
anabolism is the building up of body cells & substances from nutrients
catabolism is the breaking down of body cells or substances, releasing energy & carbon dioxide
absorption is the process by which completely digested nutrients are transported to the cells throughout the body
mastication AKA chewing, breaks food down into smaller pieces, mixes it with saliva
bolus is a mass of food that has been chewed & is ready to be swallowed
During swallowing, food travels from the mouth into the pharynx & on into the esophagus
In the esophagus, food moves downward through the action of gravity & peristalsis
peristalsis is a series of wave-like contractions of the smooth muscles in a single direction
gastic juices of the stomach contain hydrochloric acid & digestive enzymes to begin the digestive process
chyme is the semifluid mass of partly digested food that passes out of the stomach, through the pyloric sphincter & into the small intestine
emulsification in the duodenum, chyme is mixed with pancreatic juice & bile. The bile breaks apart large fat globules so enzymes in the pancreatic juices can digest the fats
Created by: Karebear