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Marieb Tissue

Chapter 4

QuestionAnswer
Simple squamous epithelium easily diffused, single layer, secretes serosa, kidney, lungs, serosa (linings)
simple cuboidal epithelium single layer sube-like cells, secretion and absorption, kidney tubules, ovary surface
simple columnar epithelium single layer tall cells with round to oval nuclei, may contain goblet cells, digestive tract
pseudostratified columnar epithelium single layer differing heights may contain goblet cells, trachea upper resp.
epithelium avascular, but inervated
stratified squamous epithelium thick membrane several layers - basal cells cuboidal or columnal, surface cells squamous - protects underlying tissues - eso, mouth
transitional epithelium basal cells cuboidal or column, surface cells dome shaped or squamous - stretches readily to permit distension
areolar connective tissue gel like matrix; composes basement membrane; wraps and cushions organs; phagocytes engulf bact; holds and conveys tissue fluids
adipose tissue provides reserve fluid; insulates
reticular connective tissue network of fibers form stroma (soft skeleton) that supports other cells
dense connective tissue attaches bone to bone and muscle to bone
hyaline cartilage firm matrix invaded with fibers; glassy and smooth; provides cushioning; found in larynx and costal cartilage
bone (osseous) tissue hard matrix; provides lever upon which muscle may act
skeletal muscle voluntary; locomotion; facial expression; cylindrical cells; multinucleate; striated
cardiac muscle invol., branching, uninucleate, intercalcated
smooth muscle invol.; spindle shaped w/central nuclei; cells arr. closely to form sheets; NO striations; bladder, stomach, active in birth
nervous cells includes neuralglia; branching cells; conducts impulses
plasma membrane bilayer of phospholipids interspersed w/protein molecules; transportation
tight junction membrane junction like a pot weld keeps body fluids from mixing
desmosomes membrane junction - filament, adhesion
gap junction connexon; allows cytoplasm of one cell into another
diffusion membrane transport - passive process; doesn't use energy; stops when EQ is reached
osmosis diffusion of water through cell or plasma membrane; must have selectively permeable membrane and concentration gradient
isotonic equal tension
facilitated diffusion how all things except water diffuse - need concentration gradient and carrier molecule
active transport need carrier molecule and will utilize energy (ATP)
endocytosis engulf/surround certain cells (WBC surround viruses, digests and kills them)
phagocytosis 'cell-eating- (WBC engulfs a solid particle)
pinocytosis 'cell-drinking'; fluid-phase endocytosis - like digesting a drop of oil
exocytosis cell eliminates indigestible materials
cytoplasm includes cytosol (living liquid), organelles and inclusions (storage)
cytosol living liquid of cell
inclusion storage
mitochondria powerhouse of the cell; anaerobic; resp. happens here
ribosome protein synthesis
endoplasmic reticulum double membrane structure containing rough Endo. Retic and smooth endo retic.
rough endoplasmic reticulum cranks out ribosomes
smooth reticulum holds lipids
Golgi apparatus packaging plant - maintains inactive enzymes until they arrive at activation site
lysosomes bag of INTRAcellular enzymes - never released to outside of cell - recycle cell parts (like WBC digest/kill bacterium)
Tay-Sachs improper breakdown of lipids
Peroxisomes organelle that breaks down free radicals (reactive forms of O2)Converts free rads to peroxide
cytoskeleton cell skeleton w/microfilaments, intermed. fila. and microtubules which contract and relax to stir and mix cytoplasm
cilia hairlike projections
flagella projections formed by centrioles
nucleus control center
RBC anucleate
chromatin DNA NOT undergoing reproduction - chromosomes
Interphase NOT a phase of mitosis; when cell is not doing mitosis, it is in interphase
prophase chromosomes form;nuclear membrane disappears; nucleolus appears, centrioles migrate; spindle forms
metaphase chromosomes meet in middle/alignment occurs
anaphase chromosomes separate - top part separates from bottom part (daughter cell)
telophase opposite of prophase - reverts back to chromatin form; nuclear membrane begins to disappear; spindle disappears; division of cytoplasm
G1 1st growth stage of interphase - chromatin single stranded
S subphase of Interphase - synthesize DNA
G2 2nd growth stage of interphase - centrioles duplicate
Phases of Interphase G1 (first growth stage, S (substage), G2 (2nd growth stage)
aptosis demobilization/killing off of cells that are no longer needed
hyperplasia accelerated cell growth
atrophy don't use it you lose it
COOH components of amino acid nitrogen, carbon
S phase Interphase
epithelial tissue covers organ or lines a hollow organ
epithelial tissue polarity; specialized contacts; supported by connective tissue; avascular but inervated; regeneration continual
simple squamous epithelial floor tile kidneys lungs
simple cuboidal single later cubits kidney sweat, oil, ducts
simple columnar lines digestive tract, stomach rectum, goblet cells
pseudostratified columnar resp. tract , has cilia to trap dust and goblet cells for mucous
stratified squamous thick skin
transitional epithelium changes from thick to thin - bladder before and after voiding
endocrine epithelium Glands diffuses directly into bloodstream - no tubes, no ducts
exocrine epithelium Glands tubes,ducts - sweat, goblet cells,sebaceous
merocrine secretion glands on forehead, upper lip (salt and water)
holocrine secretion gland in armpit and groin, salt and water, sebaceous and pieces of cells; milky like secretion w/o odor
connective tissue holds body parts together; common origin; varying degree of vascularity; extracellular matrix
collagen fibers break before stretching; shiny; strong; white; bone to bone; muscle to bone
elastic fibers stretch before breaking; yellowing; ear, tip of nose
reticular fibers (reticular connective) network of fibers, spleen
'blast' produces something
chondroblast produces cartilage chondrin
WBC digest bacterium
mast cells allergens irritate these sensitive cells that produce histamines
regular tissue organized, made up of collagen, tendons and ligaments
irregular tissue disorganized; joints and capsules; fibrous, any direction
cartilage chondrin/protein (gristle)
hyaline looks like milkglass; glistening and tough; ribcage; flexible
dendrite carries nerve impulse toward cell body
axon caries nerve impulse away from the cell body
elastic cartilage end of nose ears epiglottis
Fibrocartilage collagen, fibers, backbone, vertebrae
osseous tissue bone, osteocytes trapped in bones
blood liquid portion-plasma; lymphocytes, neutrophils - eat bad stuff
neuron pain
muscle contraction
cutaneous membranes skin
mucous membrane opens to outside; like w/mucous
serous membrane not open to outside; lined w/serosa
4 characteristc of Imslammation swelling, pain, redness, heat
regeneration of tissue repair inflammation, restore blood supply, fibrosis
3 layers of embryonic disc ectoderm )skin, nerv. sys.), mesoderm (conn. tiss., bones, organs), endoderm (dig. tract)
integumentary system includes nails, hair, sweat and sebaceous glands
integ has how many layers TWO not three (for this class) epi and dermis
epidermis stratified squamous epith. consisting of 4-5 layers
layers of epidermis keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans' cells, Merkle cells
Keratinocyte (blank)
Langerhans' cells (blank)
Layers of epidermis Stratum Corneum, Stratum Granuloseum, Stratum Spinosum, Stratum Basale (5th Stratum Lucidum-hands/feet)
Dermis 5 times thicker than epidermis, has glands,hair and hair follicles
2 layers of dermis papillary layer (20%) and reticular layer (80%)
epidermal ridges fingerprints
botox causes muscles to relax
striae stretch marks; silvery lines; scars
blister tears dermis from epidermis; tissue fluid accumulates
what det. skin color melanin (freckles are localized pigment)
jaundice liver not functioning - hepatitis - liver recycles hemoglobin
erythema blush; blood vessels dilate
pallor-blanching blood vessels constrict
bronzing metallic appearance - Addison's; hypofunction of adrenal cortex
bruise blood escapes from circulation and clots beneath skin; hematoma
appendage of skin gland
ceruminous gland ear wax gland (catch bugs)
sebaceous glands produce sebum/oil for hair and skin - always attached to hair follicle
acne over-secretion of sebum during puberty
cradle cap seborrhea (fast flowing sebum)
Hair follicle hair w/ tube growing out of it
hair on every surface except palms, soles of feet and external genitalia
soft keratin is found skin
hard keratin is found hair and nails
hair has 3 parts medulla, cortex, cuticle
medulla inside layer of hair
cortex thick layer outside medulla
cuticle outermost layer of hair, thin
red hair, must have spec pigment trichodiferin - iron containing
Arrector pili muscle found in dermis, attached to hair follicle; involuntary
vellus hair on head (women, children) fine
terminal men's eyebrows coarser hair
hirsutism hairiness; adrenal cortex tumor
alopecia baldness (hormones and genes)
Are nails and hair digestible? No. layers and layers of indigestible keratin.
Parts of nail Matrix, cuticle, laluna
matrix nail bed
cuticle eponychium
laluna moon
merkle cells epidermis light touch receptors
Messner corpuscles dermis intermediate touch
Pacinian corpuscles ??
basal cell carcinoma easily treated; surg. removed
squamous cell carcinoma raised edge, indention middle - not easily metastasized, easily treated
melanoma easily metastasized
Cancer ABC's Asymmetry, Border, Color, Diameter
Rule of 9's won't survive
1st degree burn redness
2nd degree burn redness, blistering
3rd degree burn deep tissue burn
vernix caseosa cheese like material protects skin from amniotic fluid in utero
impetigo crusty lesion face
smaller molecules make diffusion happen? slower/faster? Heat makes diffusion happen slower/faster? faster (the smaller people are able to feel the hot crowded cities to a place with more elbow room.)
carrier transmembrane showing specifity of certain polar substance (or class of sub.) too large to pass thru membrane channel on its own (like sugars and amino acids)
channels transmembrane proteins serving as transports for substances - sus. ions or water
diffusion passive transport
2 types of diffusion (not osmosis) simple and facilitated
as solute concentration increases, water concentration.... decreases
The higher the amount of non diffusible (or non-penetrating) solutes in a cell, the ___ the osmotic pressure and the ___the hydrostatic pressure that must be developed to resist further net water entry. higher the osmotic ; greater the hydrostatic
hydrostatic pressure the back pressure exerted by water against the membrane
osmotic pressure cell's tendency to resist further (net) water entry
hypertonic solutions with a higher concentration of nonpenetrating solutes than see, int he cell (strong saline, IE)
hypotonic solutions that are more dilate (lower concentration of nonpen.solutes) than cells - cells will plump up as water rushes in (IE distilled water, no sale, water will continue to enter until they lyse)
use hpertonic solutions for with edema
use hypotonic solutions with pts with dehydration
filtration process that forces water and solutes through a membrane or capillary wall by hydrostatic pressure; passive; blood; kidneys
Name two active transport processes Active transport and vesicular transport
primary active transport hydrolysis of ATP results in phosphorylation of transport protein; protein changes form - which cause it to 'pump' bound solute across membrane
secondary active transport single ATP-powered pump indiredtly drives secondary active transport of several other solutes. Across gradfient pumping acts like reserve pump or windmill. Pump stores energy.Specific transport - no 'salt' pump - no transport
vesicular transport mechanism used for exocytosis; fueled by ATP
clathrin-coated vescicles main route for endo and transcytosis - become enclosed
caveolkin coated vesicles bind to membrane receptors
cell adhesion receptors CAMS embryonic development and wound repair; glycoproteins (cadherins and integrins); Velcro, arms, SOS, sensors, transmitters
membrane receptors contact signaling and chemical signaling
receptor-mediated endocytosis main mechanism for specific endocytosis and transcytosis; exquisitely selective; insulin,virus, flu, cholera
cytoplasm cellular material between the plasma membrane and the nucleus; includes cytosol, cytoplasmic organelles and inclusions
Name 3 cytoplasmic organelles mitochondris, ribosomes, perixomes, lysosomes, cytoskeleton, centrioles
Mitochondria threadlike or sausage-shaped membranous organelles - powerhouse
cristae crests, inner folds of mitochondria that fold inward and protrude into matrix
ribosomes site of protein synthesis
rough endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes; cell's membrane factory
smooth endoplasmic reticulum plays no role in protein synthesis; consists of tubules; detox, synthesis of steroids, breakdown of glycogen, very little smooth ER
Gogli Apparatus traffic director for cellular proteins; packages proteins made at rough ER
lysosomes spherical membranous organelles containing digestive enzymes - lysol
Tay-Sachs genetic lysosomal defect - lysosomes lack enzyme needed to break down gylcolipids causing nerve cell lysosomes to swell w/undigested lipids, interfering w nervous sys functions
perixsomes membranous sacs containing powerful enzymes inc. oxidises and catalases which neutralize free radicals; found in liver and kidneys - used to detox
free radicals highly reactive chemicals with unpaired electrons that can scramble te structiure f biological mulecukes
cytoskeleton series of rods (microtubulkes, microfilaments and intermediate filaments) running thru sytosol
Microtubules determine shape of cell - part of cytoskeleton - growing out from centrosome
microfilaments thinnest element of cytoskeleton made of the protein actin
intermediate filaments tough insoluable protein fibers woven ropes - most stable and permanebtof cytoskeleton elements - highly tensile-do not bind ot ATP - they attach to desmosomes - act as guy wires
centrosome microtubule attaches at centrosome
cetrioles pinwheel array if nine triplet microtubukles. Also forn the base if clia and flagella
cilia propel othe substances across a cells surface
flagella propells itself
basal bodies centrioles forming the base of a structure - centrosome=basal body
flagellum - nine microtubules doublets; centriole has... nine microtubule triplets
lysosome site of intracellular digestion
microfilaments muscle contraction
intermediate filaments stable cytoskeleton; resist mechanical forces acting on the cell
inclusion storage for nutrients, wastes and cell products
nuclear envelope separates the nucleoplasm from the cytoplasm; regulates passage of substances to and from nucleus
nucleoli site of ribosomal subunit manufacture
chromatin DNA constitutes the gene; granular, threadlike material and histone proteins
what kinds of cells are multinucleate skeletal, bone destruction and some liver cells
What is made up of 60% globular histone proteins, 30% DNA and 10% RNA chains? chromatin (which is made up of nucleosomes
chromatin is called what when is is 'cleaving' chromosomes - chromatin condenses when cleaving - when cell is ready to divide
interphase cell formation to cell division
G1 centrioles replicate in interphase
S phase DNA is replicated in interphase
G2 enzymes and proteins synthesized and centrioles replication begun in G1 completed
adenine bonds to thymine
guanine bonds to cytosine
mitosis division of nucleus
cytokinesis division of cytoplasm
meiosis division of sex cells - produces half the number of genes found in other body cells
cytokinesis begins in late anaphase
what causes cells divide when there is not enough nutrition in the cell due to surface-area-to-volume-ratio, when it receives chemical signals or when it touches another cell (contact inhibition) except cancer cells which lacks such controls
What is the master blueprint for protein synthesis DNA
proteins are made up of polypeptide chains - which are made up of amino acids
gene segment of DNA molecule that carries instructions for creating one polypeptide chain
the four nucleotide bases are A,G,C,T
RNA decoding and messenger; has U instead of T (like DNA) is single stranded
codons 64-three-base DNA/mRNa sequences with 3 stops for signals to terminate protein synthesis
How many types of tRNA are there 45
lysosomes kill all but what types of proteins intercellular proteins used for cell division - when they die they are lysed by ubiquitins
upiquitins intercellular ATP dependent reactive protein lysers
cell differentiation development of specific and distinctive features in cells (liver cells, brain cells, heart cells, etc.)
apoptosis controlled cellular suicide - takes care of unnecessary cells - cell releases lysophophatidylcholine which attracts macrophages
hyperplasia accelerated growth
telomere string of nucleotides which cap the end of chromosomes
anaplasia abnormality in cell structure
hypertrophy growth of organ or tissue due to an increase in the size of its cells
liposomes hollow microscopic sacs forms of phospholipids that can be files w/a variety of drugs
dysplasia change in cell size, shape or arrangement due to chronic irritation or inflammation (infections)
Principle of complementarity biochemical activity of cells reflects the operation of organelles
Name the three parts of a generalized cell nucleus, cytoplasm and plasma membrane
plasma membrane encloses cell contents, mediates exchanges w/extracellular environment and plays role in cellular communication
fluid mosaic model depicts plasma membrane as fluid bilayer of lipids withing which proteins are inserted
what is the structural part of the plasma membrane lipids
what is responsible for most specialized membrane functions proteins
gap junctions allow cells to communicate
desmosomes couple cells into functional community
plasma membrane selectively permeable barrier; substances move across by passive processes dependent on kinetic energy of molecules or on pressure gradients and by active processes which depend on use of cellular ATP
diffusion movement of cells DOWN concentration gradient - fat can dissolve into the lipid
facilitated diffusion passive movement of certain solutes across the membrane by either biding with the membrane carrier protein or by moving through the membrane channel - driven by kinetic energy
solutions that cause a net loss of water from cells are hypertonic
solutions causing net water gain from cells are hypotonic
Cell membrane is more permeable to ___ than ___ potassium than sodium
Do cells exhibit a charge across their membrane at rest Yes
what is responsible for bringing the cell charge to neutral sodium potassium pump
Where is ATP formed Mitochondria
ribosomes are composed of ribosomal RNA and proteins
rough endoplasmic reticulum ribosome-studded; site of protein modification and phospholipid synthesis
smooth endoplasmic reticulum synthesizes lipid and steroid molecules, detoxes
Golgi apparatus packages proteins for export, packages enzymes into lysosomes for cellular use
centrioles form mitotic spindle and are basis of cilia and flagella
cell division occurs during what phase M phases
exon DNA provides information for protein structure - each triplet calls for particular amino acid to be built into polypeptide chain
protein synthesis involves transcription and translation
the major types of lipids found in the membrane are cholesterol and phospholipids
If DNA has a sequence of AAA, then mRNA will have a sequence of UUU (there is no T in RNA!)
Created by: MamaMia