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ch 22, 25, 26

Chapters Definitions

nephron structural and functional unit of the kidney
adipose capsule fatty mass attaches to kindey and cushions it against blows.
ureter tube that carries urine from kidney to bladder
urinary bladder smooth, collapsible muscular sac that stores urine temporatory
trigone interior of the bladder has openings for both ureters and urethra
urethra canal through which urine passes from bladder to outside the body
micturition urination or voiding emptying the bladder
Micturition Center acting as an on/off switch for micturition signals parasympathetic neurons that stimulate contraction.
urochrome yellow pigmentation in urine due to hemoglobin destruction.
nitogenous waste end product of nucleic acid metabolism
specific gravity characteristic of urine ranges from 1.001 to 1.035
glycosuria excessive intake of sugary foods
proteinuria hight protein diet protein in the urine
ketonuria presence of ketone bodies in blood. excessive formation and accumalation of ketone bodies
hemoglobinuria presence of hemoglobin in urine. transfusion reaction. hemolytic anemia
bilirubinuria liver disease obstruction of bile ducts from liver or gallbladder
hematuria bleeding urinary tract. blood in urine
pyuria urinary tract infection. renal infection or in flammation
renal calculi kidney stones
anuria abnormally low urinary output
dysuria difficult or painful urination. or painful discharge of urine
cystitis bladder inflammation. inflammation of urinary bladder
stress incontinence sudden increase in intraabdominal pressure forces urine through the external sphrinter (during laughing or coughing)
overflow incontinence urine dribbles from the urethra whenever the bladder overfills.
urinary retention bladder is unable to expel its contained urine
catheter small tube or slender rubber drainage tube inserted through urethra to drain the urine and prevent bladder excessive stretching
nocturnal enuresis bedwetting involuntary urination during sleep
cystitis bladder inflammation. inflammation of urinary bladder
stress incontinence sudden increase in intraabdominal pressure forces urine through the external sphrinter (during laughing or coughing)
overflow incontinence urine dribbles from the urethra whenever the bladder overfills.
urinary retention bladder is unable to expel its contained urine
catheter small tube or slender rubber drainage tube inserted through urethra to drain the urine and prevent bladder excessive stretching
nocturnal enuresis bedwetting involuntary urination during sleep
renal plexus reaborption of sodium Na+
renal corpuscle consists of glomerular capsule and enclosed glomerulus.
renal tubule contains tubular fluid. where the wastes and fluid filtered by the glomerulus become urine
collecting duct fuse to form large papillary ducts. filtrate from nephrons
juxtaglomerular apparatus juxtaglomerular cels of arterioles. macula densa cells of distal tubule mesangial cells
urine contains metabolic wastes and unneeded substances.
glomerular filtraton a passive, nonselective process in which hydrostatic pressure forces fluids and solutes throguht a membrane.
tubular reabsorption movement of filtrate components from the renal tubules back into the blood.
tubular secretion movement of undesirable substances from blood into filtrate. the secretion of some substances into the urine.
net filtration pressure (NFP) responsible for filtrate formation, involves forces acting at the glomerular bed.
glomerular hydrostatic pressure chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood and across the filtraton membrane.
glomerular colloid osmotic pressure forces that opposed glomerular hydrostatic pressure. forces that drive fluids back into glomerular capillaries. filtration-opposing forces.
capsular hydrostatic pressure exert by fulids in the glomerular capsule. forces that opposed glomerular hydrostic pressure and drive fluids back into glomerular capillaries.
glomerular filtraton rate rate of filtrate formation by the kidneys.
obligatory water reabsorption water follows salt.
transport maximum number of carriers in the renal tubles availabe to ferry each particular substance.
osmolality total concentration of all solute particles in a solution. number of solute partciles dissolved in one leter of water and causes osmosis.
dieresis excretion of unusually large quanity of urine. an increase excretion of urine.
renal clearnace the volume of plasma that is cleared of a particular substance in a given time (usually one minute).
ptosis both kidneys drop to a lower position. problem lead to urine unable to drain, backs up into the kidney and exerts pressure on its tissue.
hydronephros water in the kidney. backup of urine from ureteral obstruction.
pyelonephritis infections or inflammations that affect the entire kidney.
hemodialysis progresses renal disease. usues an artificial kidney apparatus for removal of waste products.
intravenous pyelogram assessment of renal blood vessels for obstructions viewing of renal anatomy. determination rate of excretion of the contrast medium.
polycystic kidney dieases both kidneys begin to enlarge as blisterlike cysts containing chloride-rich fluid accululate.
diuretic chemicals that enhance urinary output.
partial pressure pressure exerted by each gase. directly proportional to the percentage of that gase in the mixture.
oxygen toxicity partial pressure of oxygen is greater than 2.5 to 3 atm. excessively hight oxygen concentration generate harmful free radicals.
oxyhemoglobin combination of hemoglobin-oxygen.
deoxyhemoglobin hemoglobin released oxygen. reduced heomoglobin. HHb
hypoxia inadequate oxygen delivery to body tissue.
carbon monoxide poisoning leading cuase of death from fire. odorless, colorless gas that competes w/ oxygen of hem binding site.
bicarbonate ion regulaton of blood pH.
carbonic anhydrase enzyme that reversibly catalyzs conversion of carbonic acid (H2CO3)
hyperventilation increased depth and rate of breathing
hypoventilation decreased depth and rate of breathing
apnea breathing cessation. discontinuance breathing
hypoxic drive insufficient oxygen during respirator, causing boost of carbon dioxide. hight CO2, low oxygen, and low pH
nitrogen narcosis hight levels of dissolved introgen in the blood. breathing air under high partial pressure of nitrogen.
acute mountain sickness combination of reduced air pressure and lower oxygen concnentration at high altitudes.
emphysema alveoli walls break though. enlarge alveolar chamber. inflammatory material blocks gasflow into alveoli.
chronic bronchitis due to obstructive pulmonary diseases. increased airway resistance.
asthmas not able to get air out when trying to breath. shortness of breath
tuberculosis infectious diseases caused by mycobacteria.
cystic fibrosis cuases thick sticky mucus to build up i the lungs. mucus clogs repiratory passages.
aspiration inhaling or drawing something into the lungs or respiratory passages.
spirometer measuring device for evaluating losses in respiratory function
bronchoscopy insertion of tube through the nose or mouth to examine the internal surface of the bronchi.
cheyne-stokes breathing abnormal breathing patern (seen before death). bursts of tidal volume breaths. increase then decrease in depth.
epistaxis nosebleeding. excessive nose blowing.
pneumonia infectious inflammation of the lungs. fluid accumlates in alveoli.
stuttering vocal cords of larynx out of control and first syllable repeated.
sudden in fant death syndrome (SIDS) unexpected death of healthy infant during sleep.
rhinitis inflammation of the nose. inflammation of the mucous lining of the nose.
sinusitis inflammation of the sinuses.
laryngitis caused by inflammation of larynx.
valsalva's maneuver attempting to forcibly exhale while keep the mouth and nose closed.
heimlich maneuver emergency technique for preventing suffocating when airway(windpipe) becomes blocked by food or object.
pleurisy inflammation of the pleura.
pleural effusion fluid accumulation in pleural space (pleural cavity). leakage from
atelectasis lung collapses. air enters the pleural cavity. rupture of the visceral pleural.
pneumothorax the presence of air in the intrapleural space. "air thorax"
infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) inadequate pulmonary surfactant is produced.
lung cancer lungs cells become abnornal. cells invade nearby normal tissue and destroy organ structure.
hyperbaric oxygen chamber administer oxygen at elevated pressure. oxygen at a level higher than atmosphere pressure.
respiratory zone actual site of gas exchange respiratory bronchioles. alveolar ducts. alveoli
conducting zone respiratory passageways for air to reach gas exchange sites.
olfactory mucosa contains smell receptors
respiratory mucosa secretes mucous, traps dust, bacteria, debris.
paranasal sinuse sinuses lighten the skull. together with nasal cavity, they warm and moisten the air.
auditory tubes tube links to pharynx to the middle ear.
larynx houses the vocal folds, voice box.
surfactant decreases or lower surface tension. type II alveolar cells.
tidal volume narmal quiet breathing narmal. inspiration and expiration value 500ml.
inspiratory reserve volume amount of air inspired forcibly beyond tidal volume. b/w 2100 to 3200ml
expiratory reserve volume amount of air exhaled forced from lungs after a tidal expiration.
residual volume air remains in the lungs. prevent lungs collapse.
vital capacity total amount of exchangeable air. sum of tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume
total lung capacity sume of all lung volume around 6000ml
total dead space sum of nonuseful volume. alveolar dead space and anatomical dead space.
forced vital capacity measures amount of gas expelled when takes deep breath and forcefully exhales max and rapid.
forced expiratory volume determine aount of air expelled during specific time interval of forced vital capacity test.
minute ventilation total amount of gas flows into or out of the respiratory tract in 1 minute.
alveolar ventilation amount of air enter alveoli for gas exchange.
dorsal respiratory group (inspiratory center) pace-setting
ventral respiratory group help activate muscles of forced expiration.
pontine respiratory group fine-tune the breathing rhythm. prevent lung over inflation. prevent jerky breathing.
inflation reflexes prevent excessive stretching of lungs
central chemoreceptors sensitive or detect changes in pH
perifpheral chemoreceptors monitor PCO2, PO2, pH of arterial blood. aortic body and carotid body
aortic bodies receptor in aortic arch sensitive to changes O2, CO2, pH levels on blood.
carotid bodies receptor in common carotid artery sensitive to changesO2, CO2, pH levels on blood.
hyperpnea abnormally deep or rapid respiration. unchangied respiratory rate as during exercise.
cough take deep breat, closing glottis. forced air superiorly fro lungs.
szeeze expelled air directed through nasal cavities.
hiccup sudden inspiratons result from spasms of diaphragm.
yawn deep inspiraton. jaws wide open.
universal solvent variety of solutes dissolved in water
electrolytes chemical substances that dissociate(dissolved) in water. Capable of conducting electrical current.
metabolic water body water produced by cellular metabolism.
insensible water loss water vaporized out of lungs in expired air. Diffuse directly through the skin.
thirst center stimulates by hypothalamus
obligatory water loss cannot survive for w/o water intake.
sensible water loss fluid loss through wound, drainage, GI tract, and urination.
antidiuretic hormone ADH) causes kidney to conserve water. excrete concentrate urine.
aldosterone diminish urinary output. increase blood volume. reabsoprton of sodium.
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) reduce the water, sodium and fat on the circulatory system. reduce blood pressure and blood volume.
parathyroid hormone release when calcium in blood declines. increase concentraton of calcium in blood
calcitonin release in response to calcium increases in blood. acts to decrease calcium concentration in blood.
dehydration water ouput exceeds intake over a period of time. body in negative fluid balance.
hypotonic hydration overhydration.
edema swelling. accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space, leading to tissue swelling.
diabetes insipidus excessive thirst and excretion large amounts severely diluted urine.
addison's disease hypoaldosteronism. loose tremendous NaCl and water.
hypernatremia excessive sodium. dehydration.
chemical buffer 1 or more molecules acts to resist changes in pH when strong acid or strong base is added.
alkaline reserve amount of bicarbonic ions reserved in blood
volatile acid acid freely turn into gas and eliminate by the lungs. H2CO3 converted to CO2.
metabolic (fixed) aicd metabolic acids generated in body. eliminated in urine. phosphoric, uric lactic acids, ketone bodies
respiratory acidosis CO2 accumulates in blood. higher PCO2 and low pH
respiratory alkalosis lower PCO2 and High pH
metabolic acidosis low pH and low HCO3-
metabolic alkalosis high pH and hight HCO3-
respiratory compensation change in respiratory rate helps stabilize pH of extracellular fluid.
renal compensation change in rate of H+ ion and HCO3- secretion or reabsorption by kdneys in response to changes in plasma pH.
forced vital capacity measure amount of gas expelled after deep breath and forced exhale.
Created by: quachholly



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