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BIOL 1141 Exam 2

skeletal system, joints, muscular system, nervous system

Functions of the skeletal system 1. supports the body (framework) 2. protects soft organs 3. allows movement 4. storage of minerals 5. blood cell production 6. provides shape to body 7. stores fat (in yellow bone marrow)
Classifications of bones long, short, flat, irregular
sesamoid bone special type of short bone that forms within a tendon or ligament, provides protection patella is the only pair of sesamoid bones in humans
sutural bone extra small bones that form in the gaps as sutures of the skull fuse
axial skeleton head, neck and trunk includes the cranium and facial bones, the hyoid bone, vertebral column and thoracic cage (thoracic vertebrae, ribs + sternum)
appendicular skeleton pectoral girdle (scapulae and clavicles), upper limb (humerus, radius, ulna), pelvic girdle (coxal bones), lower limb (femur, tibia, fibula)
compact bone dense very few spaces, solid matrix, strong supports well but can be brittle under compressive forces forms much of the wall of the diaphysis
spongy bone cancellous less dense, many spaces contains trabeculae and red bone marrow
red bone marrow found in long bones in children only, contained in spaces of spongy bones (short, flat, irregular, round) in adults; forms blood cells
yellow bone marrow primarily in adults, found in the medullary cavity of long bones adipose tissue,
periosteum outer membrane that covers the bones dense connective tissue supplies blood vessels to bones osteoblasts are contained here
endosteum loose connective tissue membrane lines the medullary cavity
medullary cavity marrow cavity central hollow portion of the diaphysis
articular cartilage hyaline cartilage that covers the part of the epiphysis that articulates with another bone; shiny, white, slippery tissue found at articulations
diaphysis shaft/body of long bones
nutrient foramina one or more holes in the shaft of a long bone where major blood vessels enter the bone
epiphysis ends of long bones
epiphyseal plate synchondrosis allows longitudinal bone growth, region of hyaline cartilage between the diaphysis and each epiphysis that allows for bone growth when the epiphyseal plate is fully ossified, growth is complete technically a joint
epiphyseal line synostosis bone that replaces the epiphyseal plate (difficult to see)
osteon cylindrical bone subunits that form bones
osteonic canal hollow space within each osteon containing at least one artery, vein and nerve
osteocytes mature bone cells that are in the matrix inside lacunae
lacunae hollow spaces that contain osteocytes
lamellae circular layers of bone tissue/matrix
canaliculi tiny canals that connect nearby lacunae with one another allow for communication, sharing/passing of materials
perforating canal two central canals that are connected blood vessels and nerves go from osteonic canal to osteonic canal
trabeculae plates of bone that are interconnected found in spongy bone irregular lots of holes where blood vessels travel contain red bone marrow in spaces between trabeculae
ossification bone hardening, bone formation
osteoblast bone forming cell, immature gives rise to new bone incorporate calcium into the bone matrix
osteocyte mature cells in the bone matrix
osteoclast bone degrading cells phagocytic break down bone to release calcium, also clean up damaged bone tissue
bone extracellular matrix contains both organic (1/3 of bone mass) and inorganic (2/3 of bone mass) materials
ground substance protein and complex carbohydrates
collagen fibers alternating orientation in lamellae prevents twisting of bones and gives tensile strength and flexibility
calcium phosphate salts part of the inorganic bone matrix, provides resistance to compression
hydroxyapatite crystals resistant to shear forces "grit" between the lamellae that prevents layers from grinding against each other
organic matrix ground substances and collagen fibers
inorganic matrix calcium phosphate salts and hydroxyapatite crystals
tensile strength provided by ground matrix ability to withstand pulling
flexibility provided by collagen fibers ability to bend
ability to withstand compression provided by calcium phosphate
resistance to shear forces provided by hydroxyapatite crystals
endochondral ossification type of bone formation that begins with hyaline cartilage endochondral bones are cartilage models of bones, most bones form in this fashion
intramembranous ossification type of bone formation where osteoblasts invade connective tissue membranes and begin laying down bone skull bones, clavicle, mandible
bone growth and remodeling bones grow in circumference with age lose mass with age
sex-related differences in the skull and pelvis females have smaller mandibles and mastoid processes, higher forehead, rounder facial areas. lighter and somewhat smaller bones female pelvis is larger/wider to accommodate a baby's skull, coccyx is more posterior, ischial spines are further apart
fontanelles dense connective tissue membranes where the skull has not fused, allows for molding of the skull bones during delivery
molding (infant skull) movement of fetal skull bones during delivery that allows the baby to pass through the pelvis
cartilage cartilage in the ear, nose articular cartilage, covering ends of most bones at movable joints costal cartilage, connects ribs to sternum cartilage in the respiratory system (trachea, larynx, etc.) pubic symphysis vertebral discs meniscus of knee
functions of joints movement/flexibility allow for growth hold body parts together allow bones to shift during childbirth
classifications of joints by range of movement synarthroses, amphiarthroses, diarthroses
synarthroses bones are held closely and tightly together with little or no movement example - some skull bones
amphiarthroses allows some movement example - between vertebrae
diarthroses freely movable examples - shoulder, elbow, finger
long bones limbs/appendages. has a body/shaft ends articulate with other bones to form joints provide support act as levers
short bones cubelike, lumpy, lots of surfaces. good at transferring force found in the wrist (carpals) or ankle (tarsals)
flat bones generally flat sternum, ribs, cranial bones, scapula good for protection
irregular bones doesn't fit into any of the categories oddly shaped bones like vertebrae, facial bones, pelvic bones
classification of joints by structure fibrous (syndesmosis, suture, gomphosis); cartilagenous (symphysis, synchondrosis, synovial)
fibrous joints bones do not move very much comprised of dense connective tissue types - syndesmosis, suture, gomphosis
cartilagenous joints joints that are held together by cartilage types - symphysis, synchondrosis, synovial
syndesmosis type of fibrous joint example - interosseous ligament, between distal ends of tibia and fibula, holds them together right above the ankle
suture type of fibrous joint line between skull bones where bones have fused together bones are held together by sutural ligaments sometimes fully ossify in older adults
gomphosis type of fibrous joint joint that holds teeth in sockets peg in socket construction joints are between the tooth and alveolus, includes periodontal ligament
symphysis type of cartilagenous joint mostly fibrocartilage examples - pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs
synchondrosis type of cartilagenous joint mostly hyaline cartilage examples - first rib/sternum (costal cartilage #1), epiphyseal plate
synovial joint type of cartilagenous joint freely movable joints have a synovial cavity filled with synovial fluid articular cartilage covers the ends of each bone, spongy bone is deep to articular cartilage has a more complicated structure
structure of a synovial joint joint capsule, synovial membrane, synovial cavity, synovial fluid, articular discs, bursae, tendon sheaths
joint capsule holds bones together very strong outer layer of a joint, continuous with periosteum
synovial membrane connective tissue membrane that lines the synovial cavity except where there is articular cartilage
synovial cavity filled with synovial fluid surrounded by synovial membrane
synovial fluid found in synovial cavities of joints acts as a lubricant, nourishes the articular cartilage has consistency of egg white, some viscosity, slippery
articular discs additional pieces of hyaline cartilage that improve the "fit" between two bones and help stabilize the joint example - menisci in knee
bursae fluid filled pockets or tubes of synovial membrane, provide cushion between bones and tendons, etc. example - shoulder looks like a little pillow
tendon sheaths fluid filled pocket or tube of synovial membrane that provides cushion between bones and tendons, etc. example - bicep looks like a hot dog bun surrounding a tendon
hinge joints type of synovial joint uniaxial movement example - elbow
ball and socket joints type of synovial joint multiaxial movement example - hip, shoulder
actions of joints (18) flexion, extension, hyperextension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, medial rotation, lateral rotation, elevation, depression, supination, pronation, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, eversion, inversion, protraction, retraction
flexion reduces the angle between two body parts
extension increases the angle between two body parts, returns flexed body parts to original position
hyperextension increases the angle between two body parts beyond "normal"
abduction movement away from the midline of the body
adduction movement toward the midline of the body
circumduction circular movement
medial rotation rotate toward the midline
lateral rotation rotate away from the midline
elevation raise example - closing the mouth
depression lower example - opening the mouth
supination rotation of forearm so that palm faces front
pronation rotation of forearm so that palm faces rear
dorsiflexion flexing the foot up toward the shin
plantar flexion pointing the toes downward
eversion turn soles of feet outward
inversion turn soles of feet inward
protraction push forward example - underbite
retraction push backward example - returning to normal from underbite position
functions of the muscular system 1. movement of the body (locomotion) and body parts 2. joint stabilization 3. posture and body support 4. heat generation
characteristics of muscles contractility, excitability, extensibility, elasticity
contractility the ability of muscle cells to shorten
excitability the ability of muscle cells to respond to stimuli and generate action potentials
extensibility the ability of muscle cells to stretch (can still contract while stretching)
elasticity the ability of muscle cells to recoil back to original position after stretching
function of connective tissues in the muscular system 1. allows parts to move separately 2. very well supplied with blood vessels and pathways for nerves 3. protects, strengthens, bundles, attaches muscles 4. contributes to the elasticity of muscle
superficial fascia hypodermis mainly adipose and loose connective tissue
deep fascia mainly dense connective tissue contains many collagenous fibers also contains tendons and aponeuroses
tendon straps or bands that attach muscles to bones
aponeurosis broad sheets of connective tissue that attach muscles to other muscles or connect two parts of a muscle
epimysium deep fascia that covers the muscles, extends beyond the muscles to form tendons and aponeuroses
perimysium connective tissue that surrounds fascicles
fascicle sections of muscle that contain groups of individual skeletal muscle cells
endomysium surrounds each individual muscle cell/fiber houses blood vessels
origin of a muscle point of direct attachment doesn't move
insertion of a muscle point of indirect attachment moves toward the origin during the action
prime mover muscle doing most of the work muscle that contracts
agonist prime mover muscle doing most of the work muscle that contracts (ex, biceps brachii in forearm flexion)
synergists muscles that help the prime mover by contracting and assisting with the action (ex, brachialis in forearm flexion)
fixator muscles that contract and stabilize joints during an action
antagonists muscles that oppose the agonist by contracting and relaxing prevent overcontraction (ex, triceps brachii in forearm flexion) allow for precision and smoothness of movement
skeletal muscle histology mutiple nuclei, striations (A and I bands), peripheral nuclei, sarcolemma, sarcoplasm
myoblast muscle forming cell
myofibril striated muscle rods that extend the entire length of the cell and are perfectly aligned with one another
dark and light bands A bands = dark I bands = light
myofilaments small protein rods that make up the myofibrils three types - actin (thin), myosin (thick), titin (elastic)
sarcomere structural and functional unit of myofibrils myofibrils are several sarcomeres linked end to end Z-line - Z-line = one sarcomere
actin/thin filament type of myofilament twisted rod anchored by Z-discs and Z-lines
myosin/thick filament bundles of golf-club shaped molecues 2 heads on flexible stalks anchored by M-lines
titin/elastic filament springlike rods
Z-disc/Z-line connection between two actin filaments
sliding filament model of muscle contraction skeletal muscle fibers contract or shorten when thick and thin myofilament sarcomeres slide past each other, increasing the region of overlap
active contraction requires energy
passive relaxation does not require energy
role of calcium ions gives the signal to skeletal muscle fibers to contract stored in the sarcoplasm reticulum When calcium ions leave the sarcoplasm reticulum, the muscle contracts when the calcium interacts with proteins
sarcoplasmic reticulum storage center for calcium in the muscles, releases calcium when muscle needs to contract
t-tubule deep invaginations of sarcolemma that conduct action potentials deep into muscle fiber helps coordinate cells as a unit
neuromuscular junction communication junction between a neuron and a skeletal muscle fiber
motor neuron nerve cell associated with a muscle
axon terminal end of the motor neuron that transmits electrical signals/action potentials
synaptic cleft space between the neuron and the skeletal muscle fiber
neurotransmitter chemical signal molecules that are secreted by the axon terminal of a neuron, they cross the synaptic cleft and bind to a protein receptor, causing the skeletal muscle to generate its own action potential
acetylcholine very common neurotransmitter associated with skeletal muscles
motor end plate sarcolemma of the muscle fiber that is close to the axon terminals
action potential electrical signal generated by a neuron
sequence of events at a neuromuscular junction motor neuron generates action potential, releases neurotransmitter. proteins in muscle cell membrane receive neurotransmitter and this stimulates the muscle to contadct
motor unit several muscle fibers that are controlled by a single motor neuron More fibers per neuron at less precise muscles.
functions of the nervous system CNS - control/integration center PNS - receive sensory information, sends signals to rest of the body
structural divisions of the nervous system central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
central nervous system brain and spinal cord integration and command center
peripheral nervous system nerves and ganglia communication lines between CNS and parts of the body
neuron nerve cell sends electrical signals
cell body contains the nucleus has 2 different types of processes - axons and dendrites
nerve processes extensions of the cell body axon or dendrite
dendrite short, highly branched 0-100's per cell receive information
axon long, thin, not as highly branched only one per cell also called fibers
axon hillock first part of the axon that comes off the cell body, where the action potential begins
axon collateral branches of an axon
nerve fiber axon
axon terminal end of an axon that is in contact with other cells
structural classification of neurons multipolar, pseudo-unipolar, bipolar
multipolar neurons has many dendrites extending from the cell body, one axon located in CNS 99% of nerves are multipolar also called interneurons
pseudo-unipolar neurons has spherical cell body, one axon, no dendrites PNS, afferent neurons
bipolar neurons least common 1 axon and 1 dendrite extend from cell body PNS, afferent neurons
neuroglia "nerve glue" smaller cells that aid neurons account for about 50% of brain mass outnumber neurons 50:1
functions of neuroglia hold neurons together, provide nutrients, remove waste
characteristics of neuroglia mitotic can become cancerous small
satellite cells Glial cells found in the PNS ganglionic gliocytes surround neuron cell bodies and act as insulators
Schwann cells neurolemmocytes glial cells found in the PNS surround axons provide electrical insulation wrap around larger axons to form a myelin sheath
neurilemma another name for Schwann cells
myelin sheath all of the Schwann cells that are wrapped around an axon
nodes of Ranvier neurofibril nodes gaps in between Schwann cells/myelin sheath speeds up an action potential by allowing new action potentials to begin at each node to maintain more constant speed
myelinated fibers contains multiple layers of Schwann cell membrane nerve fibers that have a myelin covering
unmyelinated fibers nerve fibers that do not have a myelin covering
white matter myelinated axons
gray matter unmyelinated axons and cell bodies
oligodendrocytes glial cells found in the CNS "several arms" cells with multiple arms that can myelinate several axons
astrocytes glial cells found in the CNS star shaped most abundant CNS neuroglia transfer nutrients such as O2, CO2, amino acids, glucose, etc. form part of the blood-bran barrier
microglial cells glial cells found in the CNS very small immune system cells
ependymal cells glial cells found in the CNS line cerebrospinal fluid-filled cavities in the nervous system (brain and spinal cord) similar to epithelial cells in structure and function
blood-brain barrier neuroglial cells that keep materials from moving freely into nerve tissue
action potential electrical impulse that is transmitted by a nerve cell
synapse point of contact between a neuron and another cell
presynaptic cell the cell that initially transmits the action potential that releases neurotransmitters
postsynaptic cell the cell that receives the neurotransmitters from the presynaptic cell
synaptic cleft space between two neurons
neurotransmitters diffuse across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic neuron to the postsynaptic neuron
convergence when several presynaptic neurons bring a signal to one postsynaptic neuron
divergence when one presynaptic neuron brings a signal to several postsynaptic neurons
sensory/afferent neurons carry incoming information
motor/efferent neurons control an effector (ex, skeletal muscle)
inter/association neurons carry information from neuron to neuron
reflex arc can be somatic or visceral happens when sensory input -> action bypasses the brain so that the action happens faster and without conscious thought examples - knee jerk, blinking, pupil dilation, vomiting
sensory receptors
somatic reflexes reflexes that involve skeletal muscle or skin
visceral reflexes reflexes that involve smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, or glands
monosynaptic 2 neurons, 1 synapse
polysynaptic 3 neurons, 2 synapses
calcium phosphate storage form of calcium in the bones
hematopoiesis blood cell production
percentage of bone mass that is mineral 65-70%
Number of bones in an adult, child 206, 270
articulation joint
hypertrophy increase in bone tissue
atrophy loss of bone tissue
types of synovial joints 1. hinge 2. ball and socket 3. gliding 4. pivot 5. condyloid 6. saddle
characteristics of muscle tissue 1. long cylindrical cells called fibers 2. multinucleate with peripheral nuclei 3. striated 4. under mostly voluntary control 5. each fiber must be associated with a nerve (motor neuron) which provides the stimulus to contract
sarcolemma plasma membrane of a muscle cell
sarcoplasm cytoplasm of a muscle cell contains myofibrils
number of cranial nerves number of spinal nerves 12 31
myelin lipid and protein molecules that form the Schwann cell membrane
Created by: pinklrt98