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Anatomy Ch5 Vocab

Anatomy Ch5 Vocab Marieb

QuestionAnswer
axial skeleton bones that form the longitudinal axis of the body; skull, vertebral column, bony thorax
appendicular skeleton bones of the limbs and girdles
skeletal system bones, joints, cartilages, ligaments
function of bones support, protection, movement, storage, blood cell formation
compact bone dense and looks smooth
spongy bone composed of small needlelike pieces of bone and open space
long bones longer than they are wide; shaft with heads at both ends, compact bone
short bones cube-shaped and contain mostly spongy bone; wrist and ankle
sesamoid bones form within tendons, type of short bone; patella is an example
flat bone thin, flattened, usually curved; two layers of compact bone with spongy bone between; skull, ribs and sternum
irregular bones bones that do not fit other categories; vertebra and hip bones
diaphysis bone shaft, compact bone
periosteum fibrous connective tissue membrane covering the bone
perforating (Sharpey's) fibers secure the periosteum to the underlying bone
epiphyses end of long bone, thin layer of compact bone enclosing an area filled with spongy bone
articular cartilage covers the surface of the epiphyses; glassy hyaline cartilage, providing smooth slippery surface
epiphyseal line thin line of bony tissue spanning the epiphysis
epiphyseal plate flat plate of hyaline cartilage in young growing bone; cause the lengthwise growth of bone
yellow marrow (medullary) cavity cavity of the bone shaft, storage area for adipose tissue
red marrow the cavity of the bone, blood cell formation in infants
bone markings bumps, holes, ridges on bone surface
osteocytes mature bone cells
lacunae tiny cavities within the matrix of compact bone
lamellae concentric circles inside the lacunae
Haversian canal the central canal of the bone
Haversian system osteon, central canal and matrix rings of the bone
canaliculi tiny canals in bone, radiate outward from the central canals to all lacunae; transportation system connecting all bone cells to the nutrition supply
Volkmann's canals perforating canals; communication pathway of the bone to its interior
ossification process of bone formation
osteoblasts bone-forming cells
osteoclasts giant bone-destroying cells in bone, release calcium ions into the blood
bone remondeling the constant process of change in bone, due to aging and increase in body weight and size
hematoma blood-filled swelling of tissue
fibrocartilage callus mass of repair tissue; cartilage matrix, bony matrix, collagen fibers, closing the gap in fractures
rickets disease in children due to lack of Vit D or calcium in diet
reduction realignment of broken bone ends
closed reduction manipulation from outer skin surface to rejoin broken bones
open reduction surgery to rejoin broken bones
bony callus fibrocartilage callus become bony callus in fracture repair
cranium bones frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid
sagittal suture midline of the skull
coronal suture where the sagittal suture meets the frontal bone
squamous sutures temporal bones join the parietal bones here
external acoustic meatus canal that leads to the eardrum and middle ear
styloid process what the neck muscles join to
zygomatic process bridge of bone that joins with the cheekbone
mastoid process attachment site for meck muscles (Mastoid sinuses)
mastoiditis infection of the middle ear and sinuses
jugular foramen junction of the occipital and temporal bones; the jugular vein passes thru here
internal acoustic meatus facial and vestibulocochlear nerves
carotid canal internal carotid artery runs thru, supplying blood to most of the brain
lambdoid suture where occipital bone joins the parietal bones
formen magnum large hole surrounding the lower part of the brain, and allows the spinal cord to connect with brain
occipital condyles rests on the first vertebra of the spinal column
sella turcica small drepression, form snug enclosure for the pituitary gland (Turk's saddle)
formen ovale large oval opening allowing fibers of cranial nerve V to pass to the chewing muscles of the lower jaw
optic canal allows optic nerve to pass to the eye
superior orbital fissure cranial nerves controlling eye movements pass thru this
sphenoid sinuses air cavities in the sphenoid bone
crista galli projection from the surface of ethmoid bone, "cock's comb"; outermost covering of the brain attaches here
cribriform plates holey areas on each side of the crista galli
superior and middle nasal conchae form part of the lateral walls of the nasal cavity
facial bones maxillae, palatine, zygomatic, lacrimal, nasal, vomer, inferior nasal conchae, mandible
alveolar margin carries the lower and upper teeth in the face; keystone bones of the face
palatine process anterior part of the hard palate of the mouth
paranasal sinuses surrounding the nasal cavity, lighten the skull bones and amplify sounds
hyoid bone not really part of the skull, suspended in the midneck region above the larynx; moveable base for the tongue
fontanels fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones of the fetus and infant
secondary curvatures curvatures in the cervical and lumbar regions
scoliosis curvature of the spine
kyphosis hunchback
lordosis swayback
vertebral foramen canal through which the spinal cord passes
transverse process lateral projections from the vertebral arch
spinous process single projection arising from posterior aspect of the vertebral arch
superior and inferior articular process paired projections lateral to vertebral foramen, allowing vertebrae to form joints
atlas and axis first two vertebrae of the cervical vertebrae
dens pivot point of the atlas and axis
thoracic vertebrae (12) articulate with the ribs; larger than cervical vertebrae
cervical vertebrae (7) neck region of the spine
lumbar vertebrae (5) massive, blockline bodies, hatchet shaped spinous process, moose head shaped; sturdiest of the vertebrae
sacrum formed by fusion of five vertebrae; joins with lumbar (upper) and coccyx (lower)
coccyx formed from the fusion of three to five tiny, irregularly shaped vertebra; tailbone
alae the sacroiliac joints
median sacral crest fused spinous process of the sacral vertebrae
posterior sacral foramina to the sides of the median sacral crest
sacral canal inside the sacrum
sacral hiatus large opening of the sacrum; is the end of the median sacral crest before meeting the coccyx
bony thorax (thoracic cage) sternum, ribs, thoracic vertebrae
thoracic cage (bony thorax) forms a protective cone-shaped cage of slender bones around heart, lungs and major blood vessels; ribcage
sternum the fusing of bones: manubrium body,xiphoid process, and attaches to the first seven pairs of ribs; landmarks are jugular notch, sternal angle and xiphisternal joint
jugular notch upper border of the manubrium, at the level of the third thoracic vertebra
sternal angle where the manubrium and body meet; provides a handy reference point for counting ribs
xiphisternal joint where the sternal body and xiphoid process fuse, ninth thoracic vertebra
ribs floating ribs, last two pairs, lack sternal attachments; false ribs, attach either indirectly or not at all to the sternum; true ribs, 12 pairs form the wall of bony thorax
shoulder girdle (pectoral girdle) two bones, clavicle and scapula
clavicle collarbone, attaches to the manubrium of the sternum and scapula, forming the shoulder joint
scapula shoulder blade, flattened body and two processes, acromion and coracoid processes
acromion the enlarged end of the spine of the scapula
coracoid process beaklike end of the scapula
acromioclavicular joint where the acromion connects with the clavicle
suprascapular notch nerve passageway
glenoid cavity shallow socket that receives the head of the arm (humerus) bone
humerus long bone of the upper arm
anatomical neck slight constriction below the humerus head
intertubercular sulcus bony projections of the humerus head
greater and lesser tubercles sites of muscle attachement to the humerus
surgical neck most frequently fractured part of humerus
deltoid tuberosity midpoint of the humerus shaft where the deltoid muscle of the shoulder attaches
radial groove marks the course of the radial nerve
trochlea distal end of the humerus, looks like a spool
capitulum distal end of the humerus, looks like a ball
coroniod fossa depression on the bone; along with olecranon fossa, allow the process of the ulna to move freely when elbow is bent
olecranon fossa allow the process of the ulna to move freely when elbow is bent
medial and lateral epicondyles along with olecranon fossa and coronoid fossa, allow the process of the ulna to move freely when elbow is bent
radius lateral or thumb side of the forearm
radioulnar joint where the radius and ulnar bones meet and work together
interosseous membrane membrane that connects the radius and ulnar bones their entire length
styloid process the process at the distal end of the ulna and radius
radial tuberosity just below the head of the radius, where tendon of the bicep muscle attaches
ulna medial bone on little finger side of the forearm
trochlear notch separates the coronoid and olecranon processes; these bones grip the trochlea of the humerus in pliers-like joint
carpal bones (carpus) bones of the wrist
metacarpals bones of the hand
phalanges bones of the fingers
pelvic girdle formed by two coxal bones, commonly called hip bones
hip bones ilium, ischium and pubis
ilium large flaring bone that forms most of the hip bone
ischium sit-down bone
sacroiliac joint the joining area of the ilium sacrum
iliac crest upper edge of the ala, important anatomical landmark for injection site; joins with the anterior superior and posterior superior iliac spine
ischial tuberosity the area that receives body weight when sitting
ischial spine above the tuberosity, important landmark on pregnant women, narrows the outlet of the pelvis
greater sciatic notch allows blood vessels and large sciatic nerve to pass from the pelvis into the thigh
pubis (pubic bone) anterior part of the coxal bone
obturator foramen bar of bone enclosed by the pubic bone, allows blood vessels and nerves to pass into the anterior part of the thigh
pubic symphysis where the pubic bones of each hip bone fuse to form a cartilaginous joing
acetabulum the socket where the ilium, ischium and pubis fuse; means vinegar cup, receives the head of the high bone
false pelvis part of the bony pelvis; is above the true pelvis
true pelvis surrounded by bone and must be large enough in a woman for childbirth
femur thigh bone, only bone in the thigh, heaviest and strongest bone in the body
greater and lesser trochanters where the muscles attach to the femur
gluteal tuberosity along with the greater and lesser trochanters, are the muscle attachment points for the femur
interochanteric line and crest the bigger bony projections on the proximal head of the femur, serves as muscle attachment points on the femur
lateral and medial condyles on the distal end of long bones, articulating with the long bone below, forming the joint
intercondylar fossa deep groove between the medial and lateral condyles, on the distal end of the femur
patellar surface on the distal femur, joint where the kneecap (patella) is formed
interosseous membrane connected along the length of the tibia and fibula
tibia shinbone; medial to the fibula
intercondylar eminence articulate with the distal end of the femur form the knee joint, with the medial and lateral condyles
tibial tuberosity where the patellar ligament attaches
medial malleolus process that forms the inner bulge of the ankle
anterior border anterior surface of the tibia that is unprotected by muscles, is easily felt under the skin
fibula lies alongside the tibia and forms joints with with the tibia both proximally and distally
lateral malleolus forms the outer part of the ankle
tarsus the foot bone, formed of 7 tarsal bones
tarsal bones 7 bones forming the foot
calcaneus body weight is carried by this largest tarsal, the heel bone
talus ankle bone, lies between the tibia and the calcaneus
metatarsals forms the body of the foot, 5 foot bones
phalanges 14 toe bones forming the 10 toes; each toe has 3 of these except the big toe, having 2
articulations joints, forming movement points between bones
synarthroses immovable joints
amphiarthroses slightly movable joints
diarthroses freely movable joints
fibrous joints bones united by fibrous tissue, as in the sutures of the skull
syndesmoses the "give" of the suture; connecting fibers are longer than that of the suture, giving the ability to give
cartilaginous joints bone ends are connected by cartilage
synovial joints joints in which articulating bone ends are sparated by a joint cavity containing synovial fluid
synovial joint features articular cartilage, fibrous articualar capsule, joint cavity, reinforming ligaments
bursae flattened fibrous sac lined with synovial membrane, containing synovial fluid
tendon sheath an elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon, subject to friction
synovial joint types plane joint, hinge joint, pivot joint, condyloid joint, saddle joint, ball and socket joint
plane joint movements are nonaxial, movement does not include rotation; articular surface is flat, only short movements are possible
hinge joint angular movement is allowed on one surface; elbow joint, ankle joint; uniaxial, allow movement on one axis
pivot joint uniaxial joint, rounded end of one bone fits into a sleeve or ring of bone
condyloid joint knuckle-like, egg-shaped articular surface of one bone fits into an oval concavity in another; biaxial movement, side to side and back and forth movement
saddle joint both articular surfaces have concave areas, resembling a saddle; biaxial joints allow side to side, back and forth movement
ball and socket joint head of one bone fits into the socket of another; multiaxial joint allows movement in all directions including rotation
bursitis water on the knee
sprain ligaments or tendons are damaged by excessive stretching or tearing from the bone
arthritis crippling disease causing pain, stiffness and swelling of the joint
osteoarthritis (OA) most common form of arthritis
bone spurs extra bone tissue forming around the margins of eroded cartilage
crepitus the crunching noise made by joints upon movement
rheumatoid arthritis (RA) chronic inflammatory disorder, autoimmune disease, begins with inflammation of synovial membranes
pannus abnormal tissue caused by inflamed synovial membrane, eroding articular cartilage
ankylosis fusing of bone
gouty arthritis disease in which uric acid accumulates in the blood and deposites in the soft tissues of joints
osteoporosis bone-thinning disease, making bones fragile, especially the spine and neck of the femur
frontal bone forms the forehead
parietal bone pair of bones forming most of the superior and lateral walls of the cranium
temporal bones pair of bones above the ear; join occipital and sphenoid bones
occipital bone forms the floor and back wall of the skull
sphenoid bone spans the width of the skull and forms part of the floor of the cranial cavity
ethmoid bone forms the roof of the nasal cavity and part of the medial walls of the orbits
maxillary bones two maxillae that fuse to form the upper jaw
Created by: erosok