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Anatomy Qtr 1

The study of the structure of the human body Anatomy
The study of body function Physiology
2 Branches of Anatomy Gross Anatomy & Microscopic Anatomy
2 Types of Microscopic Anatomy Histology & Cytology
The study of tissues Histology
The study of cells Cytology
Deals with the structural changes in cells, tissues, and organs caused by disease Pathological Anatomy
All the organs with related functions are studied together Systemic Anatomy
All structures in a single region are examined as a group Regional Anatomy
The study of shapes & markings on the surface of the body that reveal underlying organs Surface (Topographical) Anatomy
Name 4 primary tissue types Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nervous
The Hierarchy of Structural Organization Chemical Lvl, Cellular Lvl, Tissue Lvl, Organ Lvl, Organ System, Organismal Lvl
4 Types of Molecules Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Nucleic Acids
3 Types of Muscle Tissue Cardiac, Skeletal, Smooth
What does epithelial tissue do? External covering and lining, protection, filtration, forms slippery surfaces
Main Classes of Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper, Cartilage, Bone Tissue, Blood
What does nervous tissue do? It's for communication & control
Forms external body covering, protects deeper tissues from injury, synthesizes vit. D, site of cutaneous & sweat and oil glands Integumentary System
Protects & supports body organs, provides a framework for muscles, blood cells are formed w/in bones, stores minerals Skeletal System
Allows manipulation of environment, locomotion, facial expression, maintains posture, produces heat Muscular System
Fast-acting control system, responds to internal/external changes Nervous System
Glands secrete hormones that regulate growth, reproduction, and nutrient use Endocrine System
Blood vessels transport blood that carries O2 & CO2, nutrients & wastes, and the heart pumps the blood Cardiovascular System
Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels, disposes of debris in the lymphatic system, houses wh. blood cells, mounts attack on foreign substances in the body Lymphatic System/Immunity
Keeps blood supplied with O2, removes CO2, gas exchange occurs through walls of air sacs in the lungs Respiratory System
Breaks down food into absorbable units, indigestible foodstuffs eliminated as feces Digestive System
Eliminates nitrogenous wastes, regulates H2O, electrolyte, & acid-base balance Urinary System
Overall function is to produce offspring, testes produce sperm & male sex hormones, ovaries produce eggs & femal sex hormones, mammary glads produce milk Reproductive System
Person stands erect w/ feet together, eyes forward, with palms facing anteriorly w/ the thumbs pointed away from the body Anatomical Position
Head, Neck, Trunk Axial Region
Thorax, Abdomen, Pelvis, Perineum Regions of the Trunk
The Limbs Appendicular Region
Toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above Superior (cranial; rostral)
Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below Inferior (caudal)
Toward or at the front of the body; in front of Anterior
Toward or at the back of the body; behind Posterior
Toward or at the mid-line of the body; on the inner side of Medial
Away from the mid-line of the body; on the outer side of Lateral
Between a more medial and lateral structure Intermediate
Closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk Proximal
Farther from the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk Distal
Toward or at the body surface; more external Superficial (external)
Away from the body surface; more internal Deep (internal)
Lies vertically & divides the body into anterior and posterior parts Coronal (frontal) Plane
Specific sagittal plane that lies vertically in the mid-line Median (midsagittal) Plane
Other vertical planes parallel to the median plane Sagittal/Parasagittal Plane
Runs horizontally, divides the body into superior and inferior parts Transverse Plane
The left half of the body is essentially a mirror image of the right half Bilateral Symmetry
2 Main closed body cavities Dorsal & Ventral
Lies in the skull and encases the brain Cranial Cavity
Runs through the vertebral column to enclose the spinal cord Vertebral Cavity
Subdivisions of the dorsal cavity Cranial & Vertebral Cavities
The more posterior and smaller of the closed body cavities Dorsal Cavity
The more anterior and larger of the closed body cavities Ventral Cavity
2 Main Divisions of the Ventral Cavity Thoracic & Abdominopelvic Cavities
Central band of organs, contains the heart surrounded by the pericardial cavity, trachea & esophagus Mediastinum
3 Parts of the Thoracic Cavity Mediastinum & 2 Lateral parts containing a lung surrounded by a pleural cavity
2 Parts of the Abdominopelvic Cavity Abdominal & Pelvic Cavities
Contains the liver, stomach, kidneys, & other organs Abdominal Cavity
Contains the bladder, some reproductive organs, and the rectum Pelvic Cavity
Cavity surrounding many of the organs of the abdominopelvic cavity Peritoneal Cavity
Muscle that divides the thoracic cavity & the abdominopelvic cavity Diaphragm (phrenic muscle)
Pericardial cavity, pleural cavities, & peritoneal cavity are all... Serous Cavities
Serous membranes that line the outer wall of the cavities Parietal Serosa
Serous membranes that line the inner wall of the cavities, lies directly on the organs Visceral Serosa
Not surrounded by peritoneal membranes, or in the peritoneal cavity Retroperitoneal
Smallest living unit in our bodies Cells
Direct chemical reactions in a cell & are known as biological catalysts Enzymes
The sum of all the chemical reactions in the cell Metabolism
Synthesis Reactions are... Anabolic Reactions
Degregative Reactions are... Catabolic Reactions
"Little Organs" that carry on essential functions of cells Organelles
Cells generally have 3 main components Plasma Membrane, Cytoplasm, Nucleus
Defines the extent of a cell and is make up of a lipid (phospholipid) bi-layer, determines what enters/leaves a cell & is selectively permeable Plasma Membrane
Types of Membrane Proteins Integral & Peripheral Proteins
Molecules move from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration Simple Diffusion
Simple diffusion of H2O across a membrane Osmosis
Mechanism by which particles enter a cell Endocytosis
"Cell Eating", nonspecific defense mechanism of the host that white blood cells carry out Phagocytosis
"Cell Drinking", cells that will use this process to sample the nutrients of the tissue fluid Pinocytosis
Mechanism that moves substances out of the cell using a vesicle Exocytosis
_______ lies internal to the plasma membrane and is made up of ______; which is a jelly-like fluid consisting of H2O, ions, enzymes that suspends other cellular elements Cytoplasm; Cytosol
Constructed of proteins and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), site of protein synthesis Ribosomes
Assembly process of proteins Translation
2 Types of Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth & Rough
Cell's membrane factory, stores ionic Ca, and ribosomes stud the external surface Rough ER
Consists of tubules in a branching network, where lipid metabolism takes place, stores ionic Ca Smooth ER
Stack of 3-10 disk shaped envelopes that is the "post-office" of the cell, sorts products of rough er Golgi Apparatus
"Powerhouse" of the cell, generates most of the cell's energy, most complex organelle Mitochondria
______ are membrane-walled sacs containing digestive enzymes & ______ are membrane-walled sacs of oxidase and catalase enzymes Lysosomes; Peroxisomes
"Cell Skeleton" that serves as the cell's bones, muscles, and ligaments; an elaborate network of rods Cytoskeleton
Control center of the cell, holds genetic info (DNA) of the cell, surrounded by a nuclear envelope Nucleus
"Little Nucleus", in the center of the nucleus, site of ribosome subunit manufacture Nucleolus
Specialized function of the cell relates to: Shape of the cell & types of organelles present
A group of closely associated cells that perform related functions and are similar in structure Tissue
A discrete structure made up of more than one tissue Organ
Special Characteristics of Epithelia Cellularity, Supported by connective tissue, Avascular, Innervated, Regeneration
One layer of cells Simple
More than one layer of cells Stratified
Cells wider than tall; plate-like Squamous
Cells are as wide as they are tall like cubes Cuboidal
Cells are taller than they are wide, like columns Columnar
Sweat & Oil Glands, Salivary Glands, Liver, Pancreas, Mucus Secreting Glands are all... Exocrine Glands
2 Main Types of Exocrine Glands Duct & Ductless
Ductless glands that secrete substances directly into the bloodstream; produce hormones Endocrine Glands
Most diverse and abundant tissue Connective Tissue
3 Types of Membranes Cutaneous, Mucous, Serous
Muscular tissue that has striations, voluntary movement, long & cylindrical cells(fibers) Skeletal
Muscle tissue that has striations, involuntary movement, occurs in the walls of the heart(myocardium) Cardiac
Muscle that lacks striations, involuntary movement, propels substances along internal passageways Smooth
2 Types of Cells of Nervous Tissue Neurons & Supporting Cells (neuroglial cells)
Conducting cells that conduct electrical impulses Neurons
Non-conducting cells Supporting Cells (neuroglial cells)
Our largest organ Skin
Skin is divided into 2 layers Epidermis & Dermis
Stratified squamous epithelial tissue Epidermis
Deep layer to the epidermis that is connective tissue Dermis
Lies deep to the dermis and is not considered a part of the skin Hypodermis
Epidermis' 4 main tissue types Keratinocytes, Melanocytes, Merkel Cells, Langerhans Cells
Most abundant cell type that produces a tough fibrous protein that gives the epidermis its protective properties Keratinocytes
Cells that produce melanin Melanocytes
Cells associated with a sensory nerve ending and may serve as a receptor for touch Merkel Cells
Cells of the epidermis that are part of the immune system Langerhans Cells
Bottom layer epidermis cells Basal Cells
Top layer epidermis cells Apical
2 Epidermis cell types found in the basal layer Merkel Cells & Melanocytes
Dentritic epidermal cell type Langerhans
2nd major layer of skin that is strong, flexible connective tissue that is vascularized and innervated Dermis
Dermis' 2 Layers Papillary & Reticular
Dermis' superficial layer that is 20% of the thickness of the dermis and is areolar connective tissue Papillary
Dermis' deeper layer that is 80% of the thickness and is made up of dense irregular connective tissue Reticular
Also known as Superficial Fascia & Subcutaneous Layer Hypodermis
Functions of Hypodermis Fat (adipose) Storage, Insulation, and Anchors skin to underlying structures
3 Pigments that contribute to the skin's color Melanin, Carotene, Hemoglobin
Most important skin pigment that ranges from yellow to reddish to brown to black Melanin
Yellowish pigment from carrots and tomatoes Carotene
Derivatives/Appendages of the skin Hair, Nails, Hair Follicles, Oil Glands, Sweat Glands
Made up of hard keratin and has a root and a shaft Hair
Secrete sebum from simple alveolar glands by holocrine secretion Sebaceous Glands
Process where entire cells break up to form the product Holocrine Secretion
2 Types of Sweat (Sudoriferous) Glands Eccrine & Apocrine
Most numerous sweat gland that produce true sweat (salt H2O) Eccrine
Sweat glands confined to the axillary, anal, & genital areas that produce sweat consisting of fatty substances and proteins Apocrine
2 Exocrine Glands in the Epidermis Sweat & Sebaceous
Scale-like modification of the epidermis made of hard keratin Nails
Created by: sbarton



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