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Anatomy Vocab Ch4

Anatomy Vocab Ch4 Marieb

epithelial membranes (covering or lining membranes) include the cutaneous membrane (skin), the mucous membranes and serous membranes; simple organs
cutaneous membrane the skin; superficial epidermis composed of keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium; dry membrane
mucous membranes (mucosa) various epithelium resting on a loose connective tissue membrane called lamina propria; open to the exterior as in hollow organs; wet or moist, continuously bathed in secretions or urine; adapted for absorption or secretion
integumentary system skin and its derivatives (sweat and oil glands, hair, nails); all protective, cushion and insulate the deeper body organs
integument covering
keratin cornified or hardened to help prevent water loss from the body surface
cutaneous sensory receptors part of the nervous systems, on the skin; tiny sensors for touch, pressure, temperature and pain receptors
epidermis stratified squamous epithelium becomes hard (keratinized) to protect body; consists of 5 layers of strata; has no blood supply
dermis dense connective tissue, connected to the epidermis; the "hide" of an animal
blister the result of interstitial fluid accumulating in the cavity between the epidermis and dermis
subcutanous tissue (hypodermis) adipose tissue, anchoring the skin to underlying organs; serves as a shock absorber
strata meaning "bed sheets", 5 layers of epidermis
avascular no blood supply of its own
keratinocytes the fibrous protein that makes the epidermis tough; makes up keratin
statum basale deepest layer of the epidermis receives the most adequate nourishment via diffusion of nutrients from the dermis; germinating layer (stratum germinativum)
stratum spinosum the fourth lowest layer of the epidermis
stratum granulosum the third lowest layer of the epidermis, cells become flatter and more full of keratin
stratum lucidum second lowest, clear layer of the epidermis; not present in all skin regions, occurs where the skin is hairless and extra thick (ie) palms and soles
stratum corneum 20-30 cell layers thick, accounts for 3/4 of epidermal thickness; shinglelike dead cell remnants
melanin pigment that ranges from yellow to brown and black, produced by melanocytes
melanocytes found in the stratum basale; cells that are stimulated by sunlight to produce more pigments by way of membrane bound granules called melanosomes; shield DNA from damaging effects of UV
herpes simplex cold sore virus; fever blisters
papillary layer upper dermal region, uneven projections (dermal papillae) as in the patterns that form the swirls and patterns of the fingerprints; genetically determined
free nerve ending pain receptors
Meissner's corpuscles touch receptors
reticular layer deepest skin layer, contains blood vessels, wseat and oil glands and pressure receptors
Pacinian corpuscles deep pressure receptors of the reticular layer
collagen fibers responsible for the toughness of the dermis; attract water
elastic fibers give the skin its elasticity when we are young
carotene orange-yellow pigment in carrots, deep colored vegies; skin takes on the color when eaten in large amounts
cyanosis when the hemoglobin is poorly oxygenated, causing the bluish tint to the skin
skin appendages cutaneous glands, hair, hair follicles, and nails
exocrine gland cutaneous glands release their secretions to the skin surface via ducts; sebaceous and sweat glands
sebaceous gland oil gland found all over the skin, not on palms or soles; ducts empty into hair follicle
sebum product of the sebaceous gland; mixture of oily substances and fragmented cells; lubricant that keeps skin soft
sweat gland sudoriferous gland, widely distributed in the skin, two types - eccrine and apocrine
eccrine gland all over the body, produce sweat, primarily water plus some salts, vitamin C, traces of matabolic waste
apocrine gland found in axillary and genital areas of the body, larger than eccrine glands, empty into hair follicles; secretion contains fatty acids and proteins; influenced by androgens and are activated by nerves fibers during pain, stress and druing sexual foreplay
androgens male sex hormone
matrix growth zone of the hair bulb
medulla central core of the hair, surrounded by cortex layer
cortex second layer of the hair
cuticle a single layer of cells; heavily keratinized, outer layer of the hair
hair follicles compound structures consisting of epidermal sheath, dermal sheath and papilla; where the hair is held
arrector pili small bands of smooth muscle cells "raiser of hair"; when the muscles contract, hair is pulled upright
nail scalelike modification of the epidermis, corresponds to the hoof or claw of animals; mostly nonliving material
nail free edge edge of the nail
nail body the visible attached portion of the nail
nail root embedded in the skin
nail fold the borders of the nail are overlapped by skin folds
cuticle thick proximal nail fold
nail bed the epidermis beneath the nail
nail matrix responsible for nail growth
lunula crescent of white found at the base of the nail; nail beds can turn blue, sign of cyanosis
tinea pedis athlete's foot; itchy, red, peeling fungus infection
boils/carbuncles inflammation of hair follicles and sebaceous glands, typically caused by baterical infection
contact dermatitis caused by exposure to things that provoke allergic response
impetigo lesions around the mouth and nose caused by highly contagious staphylococcus infection
psoriasis chronic condition, overproduction of skin cells, can be disfiguring; autoimmune disorder
burn tissue damage and cell death
circulatory shock shutdown of kidneys and inadequate circulation of the blood
rule of nines the method of dividing the body into 11 areas, each is 9% of body surface
pathogens bacteria and fungi
first-degree burns only the epidermis is damaged
second-degree burns involve injury to the epidermis and upper region of the dermis
partial thickness burns first and second degree burns
third-degree burns destroy the entire thickness of the skin, also called full-thickness burns; nerve endings in the area are destroyed; requires skin grafting
critical burns over 25% of body has second degree burns OR over 10% of body had third degree burns OR 3rd degree burns on face, hands or feet
basal cell carcinoma the least malignant and most common skin cancer
squamous cell carcinoma form from the cells of the stratum spinosum; appear most often on scalp, ears, dorsum of the hands and lower lip; rapidly growing; metasasizes to lymph nodes if not removed
malignant melanoma cancer of melanocytes; accounts for about 5% of skin cancers, increases rapidly and is often deadly
Created by: erosok



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