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state board test

archaeological studies reveal that hair cutting and hairstyling were practiced in some form as early as the ice age
the first culture to cultivate beauty in an extravagant fashion was the egyptians
in 3000 bc the first recorded use of a hair-coloring agent was the use of henna
to achieve a look of greater intelligence during the renaissance women shaved their eyebrows and hairline
in 1938 arnold willatt developed a method of permanent waving that used waving lotion with no heat called a cold wave
one of the most vital aspects of good grooming is careful maintenance of wardrobe
the ability to understand people is the key to operating effectively
the single most important communication tool that should be done prior to any client service is the client consultation
to reiterate everything to a client during the consultation process means to repeat in measured precise terms
the individual in the salon that has the most responsibility for how the salon in run in terms of daily maintenance, operations. and client service is tehe salon manager
an excellent time to discuss your progress with the salon owner or your employer is during an employee evaluation
material safety data sheets (msds) are obtained from the product manufacturer
regulatory agencies and governmental health departments require businesses that serve the public to follow prescribed sanitary precautions
one-celled microorganisms with both plant and animal characteristics are bacteria
pus-forming bacteria arranged in curved lines that resemble a string of beads are streptococci
cocci are pathogenic bacteria that are what kind of shape round
bacteria that grow in pairs and can cause pneumonia are diplocci
lyme disease, syphilis, or sexually transmitted disease are caused by spiral or corkscrew shaped bacteria called spirilla
bacteria that are transmitted through the air and rarely show active motility are cocci
the life cycle of bacteria has two distinct phases the active stage and inactive or spore-forming stage
bacteria that pose little or no risk to a client in the salon setting but are dangerous in the medical setting are anthrax and tetanus bacilli
a virus can live and reproduce only by attaching to a blood borne virus and becoming part of it
hepatitis A, a bloodborne virus is marked by an inflammation of the liver
human immunodeficiency virus is the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome
a skin disease caused by an infestation of head lice is pediculosis
the surfaces of tools or objects not completely free from dirt, oils, and microbes are covered with contaminants
decontamination is a process that involves that use of physical or chemical means to remove or destroy pathogens
in the salon setting, disinfection is extremely effective in controlling microorganisms on non-living surfaces
a higher level of decontamination than sanitation is disinfection
a chemical agent that is used to destroy bacteria and viruses on surfaces is disinfectant
a manufacturer must supply pertinent safety and storage information by providing material safety data sheets
the agency that enforces safety and health standards in the workplace is osha
disinfectant with a high pH that can cause skin irritation or burn the skin or eyes are phenolic disinfectants
to be effective in the disinfection of implements, ethyl alcohol must be no less than 70%
a common household product used effectively as a disinfectant is sodium hypochlorite
the first step in the decontamination process is called sanitation
antiseptics are effective for cleaning your hands
the agency that sets the standard for dealing with blood borne pathogens is osha
the substance called protoplasm is found in cells of all living things
the watery fluid that cells need for growth, reproduction, and self-repair is found in the cytoplasm
a collection of similar cells that perform a specific function are tissue
the ankle joint is formed by the tibia, fibula, and the femur
the hindmost bone of the skull occipital
the medical term used to describe the study, function, and diseases of the muscles is myology
the two bones that form the upper jaw are maxillae
the uppermost and largest bone of the arm, extending from the elbow to the shoulder is the humerus
how many bones is the foot made up of 26
what bone is a heavy, long bone that forms the leg above the knee femur
skeletal muscles attached to bone that are voluntary or controlled at will are striated muscle
the part of the muscle that does not move is the origin
pressure applied to a muscle during massage is usually directed from the insertion to the origin
the broad muscle that covers the top of the head is the epicranius
a muscle covering the back of the neck and the upper and middle region of the back that rotates and controls the swinging of the arms is the trapezius
muscles that straighten the wrist, hand, and fingers to form a straight line are the extensors
the muscles at the base of the fingers that draw fingers together are the adductors
the gastrocnemius muscle is located in the lower leg
every square inch of the body is supplied with fine fibers known as nerves
tubelike structures that include arteries, capillaries, and veins are blood vessels
a thin walled blood vessel that is less elastic than an artery is a vein
the largest artery in the body is the capillary
white blood cells perform the important function of destroying disease causing microorganisms
endocrine glands release a secretion called hormones
the largest living organ of the body is the skin
healthy is slightly moist,soft, and flexible with a texture that is smooth and fine grained
the outermost layer of the skin is also called teh epidermis
the outermost layer of the epidermis is the stratum corneum
a fiber protein that is the principal component of hair and nails is keratin
the clear transparent layer under the skin surface is the stratum lucidum
the underlying or inner layer of the skin is the dermis layer
tissue that give smootheness and contour to the body and provides a protective cushion is subcutaneous tissue
basic sensations such as touch, pain, heat, cold, and pressure are registered by nerve endings
the sudoriferous glands help the body regulate temperature
what substances is usually contained in a toner oxidation tint
after removal of whiteheads what should you apply to the skin afterwards an antiseptic
before disinfecting combs and brushes, they should be cleaned with soap and warm water
what is the process used in tapering and thinning with scissors slithering
the action of chemical hair relaxers causes the hair to soften and swell
when should a predisposition test be performed before every application of oxidizing tints
at what part of the nail does growth start matrix
what is the function of sebum to lubricate the skin
sterilization is the process of destroying both harmful and beneficial bacteria
where should freshly laundered towels be kept in a closed cabinet or drawer
the hard protective plate found at the ends of fingers and toes are natural nails
the area under a healthy nail plate is what color pinkish
the portion of the living skin on which the nail plate sits is the nail bed
the nail bed is attached to the nail plate by a thin layer of tissue called bed epithelium
nail cells are formed in what part of the nail structure matirx
the visible part of the matrix that extends from underneath the living skin is the lunula
the most visible and functional part of the nail module is the nail plate
the nail plate is constructed of how many layers of nail cells 100
the part of the nail plate that extends over the tip of the finger or toe is the free edge
the dead colorless tissue attached to the nail plate is the cuticle
the living skin at the base of the nail plate covering the matrix area is the eponychium
the slightly thickened layer of skin the lies underneath the free edge of the nail plate is the hyponychium
tough bands of fibrous tissues that connect bones are ligaments
the length, width, and curvature of nails are determined by the matrix shape
in the normal adult, the average rate of nail growth is about 1/10 inch per month
a healthy nail will grow provided there is no damage to the matrix
replacement of the natural fingernail usually takes about 4-6 months
what fingernail grows the fastest middle finger
the nail has a water content between 1 and 5 percent
the scientific study of hair, its diseases, and care is called trichology
the two parts of the mature hair strand are the hair shaft and the hair root
the tubelike depression or pocket in the skin or scalp that contains the hair root is the follicle
the follicle extends downward from the epidermis, where it surrounds the dermal papilla
the lowest area or part of the hair strand is the hair bulb
a tiny, involuntary muscle fiber inserted in the base of the hair follicle is the arrector pili
for chemicals to penetrate a healthy cuticle hair layer, they must have an alkaline ph
the fibrous protein core of the hair, formed by elongated cells containing melanin pigment is the cortex layer
hair is composed of a protein that grows from cells originating within hair follicle
the process whereby living cells mature and begin their journey up the hair shaft is keratinization
the medulla is composed of what shaped cells round
wet healthy hair will stretch up to what percent 50%
when shaping and styling hair, consider the hairs natural growth paterns
dry hair and scalp can be caused by inactive sebaceous glands
oily scalp and hair can be treated by properly shampooing with normalizing shampoo
hair that is not pigmented and almost never has a medulla is vellus
the growth stage phase where new hair is produced is anagen
the average growth of healthy scalp hair is one inch per month
the final or resting phase in the hair growth cycle is telogen
in general the cross sections of curly hair can be oval
the term used to identify abnormal hair loss is alopecia
the sudden falling out of hair in round patches or baldness in spots is called alopecia areata
two products approved by the FDA to stimulate hair growth and allowed for sale in the US minoxidil and finasteride
the technical term used to describe gray hair is canities
a variety of canities, characterized by alternating bands of gray and pigmented hair ringed hair
a condition of abnormal hair growth on areas of the body is hypertrichosis
the technical term used to describe beaded hair is monilethrix
the medical term for dandruff pityriasis
the medical term used to describe a fungal organism characterized by itching, scales, and painful circular lesions is tinea
they type of fungal infection characterized by red papules at the opening of the hair follicles is tinea capitits
an acute localized bacterial infection of the hair follicle that produces constant pain is a furuncle
an inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue caused by staphylococci is a carbuncle
the study of substances that contain carbon is referred to as organic chemistry
metals, minerals, water, and air are examples of inorganic substances
a basic substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substance without the loss of identity is called an element
substances that cannot be divided into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means are atoms
the smallest particle of an element is atom
chemically joining two or more atoms forms a molecule
characteristics that do not involve chemically changing a substance are physical properties
physical mixtures containing two or more different substances are solutions, suspensions, and emulsions
a blended mixture of two or more liquids or a solid dissolved in a liquid is a solution
a substance that dissolves another substance with no change in chemical composition is a solvent
miscible liquids are liquids that can be mixed into stable solutions
liquids that are not capable of being mixed into stable solutions are immiscible
a product that does not separate when standing and contains particles is considered to be a solution
solutions that contain undissolved particles that are visible to the naked eye are known as suspensions
a mixture of two of more immiscible substances united with the aid of a binder is know as a emulsion
a substance that acts as a bridge to allow oil and water to mix or emulsify is an surfactant
the water-loving head of a surfacant molecule is hydrophilic
ammonium hydroxide and ammonium thioglycolate are examples of products used to raise the ph of hair
an atom or molecule that carries and electric charge is an ion
acids owe their chemical reactivity to the hydrogen bond
chemical reactions that produce heat are called exothermic
the chemical reaction that combines an element or compound with oxygen to produce an oxide is oxidation
the rapid oxidation of any substance accompanied by heat or light is combustion
when oxygen is subtracted from a substance, the chemical reaction is called reduction
a substance that has a ph about 7.0 is considered to be a alkali solution
a sweet, colorless, oily substance used as a moisturizing ingredient in cosmetic products is glycerin
the chemical reaction in which the oxidizing agent it reduced and the reducing agent is oxidized is redox
electricity is described as a form of energy
the flow of electricity along a conductor is called an electric current
metals used in electric wiring and motors are materials that are considered good electricity conductors
electric wires are usually covered with a rubber substance that is used as an insulator or nonconductor
the path of electricity from the generating source through conductors and back to the original source is called complete circuit
electric current that is constant even flowing and travels in one direction direct current
the device that changes direct current to alternating current is an converter
a rapid and interrupted current that flows in one direction then in the opposite direction is alternating current
the unit that measures the pressure of force that pushes the flow of electrons through a conductor volt
the unit that measures the amount of electric current is an ampere
the current that is used for facial and scalp treatments is measured in milliamperes
the unit that measures how much electric energy is being used in one second is an watt
the device that prevents excessive current form passing through a circuit is an fuse
a switch that automatically interrupts or shuts off an electric current at the first indication of an overload is an circuit breaker
an important way of promoting electrical safety is the principle of grounding
an applicator that is used for directing the electric current form the machine to the clients skin is called an electrode
the positive electrode of an electrotherapy device is called an anode
the negative electrode of an electrotherapy device is called an cathode
the most commonly used modality that is a constant and direct current is galvanic current
the process of introducing water soluble products into the skin with the use of electric current is called iontophoresis
a process that forces liquids into the tissues from the negative toward the positive pole is called anaphoresis
a thermal or heat producing current with a high rate of oscillation that is used for scalp and facial treatments is tesla current
visible light that part of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum that we can see makes up what percentage of natural sunlight 35%
the long wavelengths that penetrate the deepest and produce the most heat are infrared rays
to avoid damage to the eyes of a client of practitioner when using light therapy treatments the eyes should be protected with saturated cotton pads safety goggles
Created by: staceyn30
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