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Resp System Chapt 7


nose nas/o
nose (primary function) exchanges air during inhaling & exhaling; warms, moisturizes & filters inhaled air
sinuses sinus/o
sinuses (primary function) produce mucus for the nasal cavities, make bones of the skull lighter, aid in sound production
pharynx pharyng/o
pharynx (primary function) transports air back & forth between the nose & the trachea
larynx laryng/o
larynx (primary function) makes speech possible
epiglottis epiglott/o
epiglottis (primary function) closes off the trachea during swallowing
trachea trache/o
trachea (primary function) transports air back & forth between the pharynx & the bronchi
bronchi bronch/o, bronchi/o
bronchi (primary function) transports air from the trachea into the lungs
alveoli alveol/o
alveoli (primary function) air sacs that exchange gases with the pulmonary capillary blood
lungs pneum/o, pneumon/o, pulmon/o
lungs (primary function) bring oxygen into the body & remove carbon dioxide & some water waste from the body
Functions of the Respiratory System: bring oxygen from the inhaled air into the blood for delivery to the body cells; expel waste products returned to the lungs by the blood; produce the airflow through the larynx that makes speech possible
upper respiratory tract consists of the nose, mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx & trachea
lower respiratory tract consists of the bronchial tree & lungs; protected by the thoracic cavity
How does air enter the body? through the nose & passes through the nasal cavity
nasal septum is a wall of cartilage that divides the nose into 2 equal sections
septum is a wall that separates 2 chambers
cilia the thin hairs located just inside the nostrils, filter incoming air to remove debris
mucous membranes are the specialized tissues that line the respiratory, digestive, reproductive, & urinary systems
mucus secreted by the mucous membranes; protects & lubricates these tissues; helps to moisten, warm & filter the air as it enters
olfactory receptors are nerve endings that act as the receptors for the sense of smell
paranasals sinuses air-filled cavities lined with mucous membrane; located in the bones of the skull
para near
nas nose
-al pertaining to
What are the functions of the sinuses? to make the bones of the skull lighter; to help produce sound by giving resonance to the voice; to produce mucus to provide lubrication for the tissues of the nasal cavity
frontal sinuses are located in the frontal bone just above the eyebrows
sphenoid sinuses are located in the sphenoid bones; are close to the optic nerves
maxillary sinuses are the largest of the paranasal sinuses; are located in the maxillary bones
ethmoid sinuses are located in the ethmoid bones; are irregularly shaped air cells that are separated from the orbital cavity by only a thin layer of bone
pharynx AKA throat
nasopharynx is the first division; is posterior to the nasal cavity & continues downward to behind the mouth; is used only for our respiratory system; transports only air
nas/o nose
-pharynx throat
orophyarynx is the second division; the portion that is visible when looking into the mouth; shared by the respiratory & digestive systems & transports air, food & fluids downward to the laryngopharynx
or/o mouth
laryngopharynx is the third division; shared by both the respiratory & digestive systems
larynx AKA voice box; triangular; located between the pharynx & the trachea
thyroid cartilage protects larynx; largest; AKA the Adam's apple
How does air pass through the vocal cords? during breathing, they are separated to let air pass; during speech, they close together
protective swallowing during swallowing, the soft palate, which is the muscular posterior portion of the roof of the mouth, moves up & backward to close off the nasopharynx; it prevents food or liquid from going into the nose
epiglottis is a lid-like structure located at the base of the tongue
trachea AKA windpipe; the tube located directly in front of the esophagus that extends from the neck to the chest; made up of C-shaped cartilage; flexible walls inbetween to make movement possible
bronchial tree AKA bronchi
bronchi formed where the trachea divides into 2 branches known as the primary bronchi
bronchioles smalles branches of the bronchi
bronchial tree looks like an upside down tree; 1 branch going into each lung
alveoli AKA air sacs; very small grape-like clusters found at the end of each bronchiole; contain millions of alveoli that are filled with air from the bronchioles
What surrounds the alveoli? a network of microscopic pulmonary capillaries; during respiration, the exchange of oxygen & carbon dioxide between the alveolar air & the pulmonary capillary blood occurs through the walls of the alveoli
lungs the organs of respiration
right lung has 3 lobes: the superior, middle & inferior
left lung has only 2 lobes: the superior & inferior
mediastinum is the cavity located between the lungs
pleura is a thin, moist & slippery membrane that covers the outer surface of the rib cage
parietal pleura is the outer layer of the pleura that lines the walls of the thoracic cavity, covers the diaphragm & forms the sac containing each lung
visceral pleura is the inner layer of pleura that surrounds each lung
pleural cavity AKA the pleural space, is the airtight area between the layers of the pleural membranes. This space contains a thin layer of fluid that allows the membranes to slide easily during breathing
diaphragm is the muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdomen
respiration is the exchange of oxygen & carbon dioxide that is essential to life
A single respiration consists of: one inhalation & one exhalation
inhalation is the act of taking in air as the diaphragm contracts & pulls downward. This action causes the thoracic cavity to expand. This produces a vacuum within the thoracic cavity that draws air into the lungs
exhalation is the act of breathing out. As the diaphragm relaxes, it moves upward, causing the thoracic cavity to become narrower. This action forces air out of the lungs
external respiration is the act of bringing air into & out of the lungs & exchanging gases from this air
As air is inhaled into the alveoli, oxygen immediately passes into the surrounding capillaries & is carried by the erythrocytes to all body cells.
At the same time, the waste product carbon dioxide that has passed into the bloodstream is: transported into the airspaces of the lungs to be exhaled
internal respiration is the exchange of gases within the cells of the body organs, cells & tissues
In this process: oxygen passes from the bloodstream into the cells, the cells give off the waste product carbon dioxide & this passes into the bloodstream, the bloodstream transports carbon dioxide to the lungs where it is expelled during exhalation
Created by: Karebear



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