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The Nervous System 2

Peripheral Nervous System for A&P

Mechanoreceptors stimulus = mechanical force, mechanism = deforms cell membrane (cutaneous touch/pressure receptors)
Chemoreceptors stimulus = dissolved chemicals, mechanism = affects ionic permeability (smell, taste, osmoreceptors)
Photoreceptors stimulus = light, mechanism = photochemical reaction (rods and cones)
Nociereceptors stimulus = tissue damage, mechanism = chemical release (cutaneuous pain receptors)
Unencapsulated free dendritic nerve endings almost all body tissues; most in epithelial and connective tissue for pain, temp, pressure
Encapsulated dendritic nerve endings sensory nerve endings enclosed within connective tissue capsule, mechanoreceptors
Meissener's corpuslces sensitive to light pressure and discriminiative touch, found in dermal papillae of hairless skin (fingertips, palms)
Krause's end bulbs like Meissen's found in connective tissue of mucosae near body orfrices (mouth, eyes)
Pacinian corpuscles fast adapating mechanorecptors respond to deep pressure/stretch, found in subcutaneous tissue skin; tendons; ligaments
Ruffini's corpuscles slow adapting,deep presure/stretch, found in dermis, hypodermis, joint capsule helps cerebellum adjust for balance
Muscle spindle fibers respond to sudden changes in length (communicates with spinal cord)
Golgi tendon organs respond to changes in tension, causes muscle to relax after contraction
joint kinesthetic receptors monitor stretch in articular capsule enclosing joints, includes ruffini's, pacinian, and free dendritic endings
Endoneurium thin connectie tissue layer over each axon
Perineurium denser connective tissue bundles nerves into fasciles
Epineurium outer conective tissue, encloses all fasiciculi bundles to form nerve
Mixed nerves most nerves are mixed both afferent and efferent nerves
PNS nerve classification somatic afferent/efferent, visceral afferent/efferent, and cranial/spinal
Spinal nerves 31 pairs, all mixed (ventral and dorsal roots)
Cervical spinal nerves C1-C8 (C8 emerges inferior to vertebrae C7)
Thoracic spinal nerves 12 from T1-T12
Lumbar spinal nerves 5 from L1-L5
Sacral 5 from S1-S5
Cocygeal 1 pair
Spinal nerve proper ventral root (motor) and dorsal root (sensory) fuse
ventral ramus on anterior portion, motor and sensory needs of muscles on extremities/thoracic and abdominal walls found in intercostal groove of rib
dorsal ramus posterior side, smaller; serves skin and musculature of posterio rbody trunk
meningeal branch re-enters spinal cord to innervate the meninges and blood vessels
Dermatome area of body served by one common sensory nerve (test this first)
Myotome group of muscles served by one common motor nerve (test this second)
Spinal Reflexes involuntary somatic reflexes like the knee jerk. Reflexes by spinal cord, remain even with cortical brain damage but not if cord is transected
Stretch/Deep tendon reflexes Muscle spindle fibers cause contraction in response to rapid increase in length
Flexor reflex Ispilateral (same side of body), withdraw body part from perceived or real threat
Crossed extensor reflex withdrawl on threatened side and extend on opposite (contralateral) side
Created by: mmason