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Structure and Funct

Week 4

Muscle respiration Breathing requires the use of muscles Diaphragm and external intercostal muscles internal intercostal muscles Contraction of first 2 produces inspiration Contraction of last produces forced expiration Normal expiration requires little muscular activi
Muscle respiration-diaphram Muscular dome between thoracic and abdominal cavities Muscle fascicles extend to a fibrous central tendon Contraction flattens it increases the vertical dimension of the thorax drawing air into the lungs raises the abdominal pressure to help expel
Muscles of respiration External intercostals extend downward and anteriorly from rib to rib pull ribcage up and outward during inspiration Internal intercostals extend upward and anteriorly from rib to rib pull ribcage downward during forced expiration
Surface Anatomy Thorax Sternocleidomastoid Thyroid cartilage Trapezius Supraclavicular fossa Clavicle Suprasternal notch Acromion Deltoid Manubrium Pectoralis major Body Nipple Xiphoid process Rectus abdominis
Organs of respiratory Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
Nose Functions warms, cleanses, humidifies inhaled air detects odors resonating chamber that amplifies the voice Bony and cartilaginous supports superior half: nasal bones medially and maxillae laterally inferior half: lateral and alar cartilages ala na
Nasal cavity Extends from nostrils to posterior nares Vestibule: dilated chamber inside ala nasi stratified squamous epithelium, vibrissae (guard hairs) Nasal septum divides cavity into right and left chambers called nasal fossae
Conchae and Meatuses Superior, middle and inferior nasal conchae 3 folds of tissue on lateral wall of nasal fossa mucous membranes supported by thin scroll-like turbinate bones Meatuses narrow air passage beneath each conchae narrowness and turbulence ensures air contact
Nasal cavity mucosa Olfactory mucosa lines roof of nasal fossa Respiratory mucosa lines rest of nasal cavity with ciliated pseudostratified epithelium Defensive role of mucosa mucus (from goblet cells) traps inhaled particles bacteria destroyed by lysozyme
Nasal cavity cilia Function of cilia of respiratory epithelium sweep debris-laden mucus into pharynx to be swallowed Erectile tissue of inferior concha venous plexus that rhythmically engorges with blood and shifts flow of air from one side of fossa to the other Epista
Regions of pharynx Nasopharynx Oropharynx Laryngopharynx
Nasopharynx (pseudostratified epithelium) posterior to choanae, dorsal to soft palate receives auditory tubes and contains pharyngeal tonsil 90 downward turn traps large particles (>10m)
Oropharynx (stratified squamous epithelium) space between soft palate and root of tongue, inferiorly as far as hyoid bone, contains palatine and lingual tonsils
Laryngopharynx (stratified squamous) hyoid bone to level of cricoid cartilage
Larynx Glottis – vocal cords and opening between Epiglottis flap of tissue that guards glottis, directs food and drink to esophagus Infant larynx higher in throat, forms a continuous airway from nasal cavity that allows breathing while swallowing by age 2
9 Cartilages of Larynx Epiglottic cartilage most superior Thyroid cartilage – largest Cricoid cartilage (circ) Arytenoid cartilages (2) Corniculate cartilages (2) lil horns Cuneiform cartilages (2)
Interior wall of larynx Interior wall has 2 folds on each side, from thyroid to arytenoid cartilages vestibular folds: superior pair, close glottis during swallowing vocal cords: produce sound
Intrinsic muscles of larynx Intrinsic muscles - rotate corniculate and arytenoid cartilages adducts (tightens: high pitch sound) or abducts (loosens: low pitch sound) vocal cords
Extrinsic muscles of larynx Extrinsic muscles - connect larynx to hyoid bone, elevate larynx during swallowing
Trachea Rigid tube Supported by c-shaped rings opening in rings faces posteriorly towards esophagus trachealis spans opening in rings, adjusts airflow by expanding or contracting Larynx/trachea lined w/ ciliated pseudostrat epithelium which functions as escal
Lung surface anatomy Apex Primary bronchi Superior lobe Coastal surface Middle lobe Fissures Mediastinal surfaces R. Cardiac impression Inferrior lobe Base
Primary bronchi from trachea; after 2-3 cm enter hilum of lungs right bronchus slightly wider and more vertical (aspiration)
Secondary bronchi (lobar) bronchi (overlapping plates) one secondary bronchus for each lobe of lung
Tertiary bronchi (segmental) bronchi (overlapping plates) 10 right, 8 left
Bronchioles (lack cartilage) layer of smooth muscle pulmonary lobule portion ventilated by one bronchiole divides into 50 - 80 terminal bronchioles ciliated; end of conducting division respiratory bronchioles divide into 2-10 alveolar ducts; end in alveolar s
Alveoli bud from respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveolar sacs main site for gas exchange
Pleurae and Pleural Fluid Visceral (on lungs) and parietal (lines rib cage) pleurae Pleural cavity - space between pleurae, lubricated with fluid Functions reduce friction create pressure gradient lower pressure assists lung inflation compartmentalization prevents spread of
Pulmonary ventilation Breathing (pulmonary ventilation) – one cycle of inspiration and expiration quiet respiration – at rest forced respiration – during exercise Flow of air in and out of lung requires a pressure difference between air pressure within lungs and outside bod
Diahram (dome shaped) contraction flattens diaphragm
Scalenes hold first pair of ribs stationary
Ext./Int intercoastals stiffen thoracic cage; increases diameter
Pectoralis minor, strnocleidomastoid, and errector spinae muscles used in forced inspiration
Abdominalis and latissimus dorsi forced expiration (to sing, cough, sneeze)
Neural control of breathing Breathing depends on repetitive stimuli from brain Neurons in medulla oblongata and pons control unconscious breathing Voluntary control provided by motor cortex Inspiratory neurons: fire during inspiration Expiratory neurons: fire during forced expir
Respiratory nuclei in medulla inspiratory center (dorsal respiratory group) frequent signals, you inhale deeply signals of longer duration, breath is prolonged expiratory center (ventral respiratory group) involved in forced expiration
Pons pneumotaxic center sends continual inhibitory impulses to inspiratory center, as impulse frequency rises, breathe faster and shallower apneustic center prolongs inspiration, breathe slower and deeper
From limbic system and hypothalamus respiratory effects of pain and emotion
From airways and lungs irritant receptors in respiratory mucosa stimulate vagal afferents to medulla, results in bronchoconstriction or coughing stretch receptors in airways - inflation reflex excessive inflation triggers reflex stops inspiration
From chemoreceptors monitor blood pH, CO2 and O2 levels
Peripheral chemoreceptors found in major blood vessels aortic bodies signals medulla by vagus nerves carotid bodies signals medulla by glossopharyngeal nerves
Central chemoreceptors in medulla primarily monitor pH of CSF
Voluntary control Neural pathways motor cortex of frontal lobe of cerebrum sends impulses down corticospinal tracts to respiratory neurons in spinal cord, bypassing brainstem Limitations on voluntary control blood CO2 and O2 limits cause automatic respiration
Atmospheric pressure 1 atmosphere (atm) = 760 mmHg
Intrapulmonary pressure and lung volume pressure is inversely proportional to volume for a given amount of gas, as volume inc, pressure inc and as volume inc, pressure inc
Pressure gradients difference between atmospheric and intrapulmonary pressure created by changes in volume thoracic cavity
Inspiration pressure changes inc intrapleural atm: as vol of thoracic cavity inc,visceral pleura clings to parietal pleura dec intrapulmonary atm: lungs expand with visceral pleura Transpulmonary atm: intrapleural minus intrapulmonary atm Inflation aided by warming of inhaled ai
Passive expiration Expiration achieved by elasticity of lungs and thoracic cage As volume of thoracic cavity , intrapulmonary pressure  and air is expelled After inspiration, phrenic nerves continue to stimulate diaphragm to produce a braking action to elastic recoil
Forced expiration Internal intercostal muscles depress the ribs Contract abdominal muscles Inc intra-abdominal pressure forces diaphragm upward Inc pressure on thoracic cavity
Pneumothoax Presence of air in pleural cavity loss of negative intrapleural pressure allows lungs to recoil and collapse Collapse of lung (or part of lung) is called atelectasis
Resistance to airflow Pulmonary compliance distensibility of lungs; change in lung volume Bronchiolar diameter primary control over resistance to airflow bronchoconstriction bronchodilation sympathetic nerves, epinephrine
Aveolar surface tension Thin film of water needed for gas exchange creates surface tension that acts to collapse alveoli and distal bronchioles Pulmonary surfactant (great alveolar cells) decreases surface tension Premature infants that lack surfactant suffer from respirator
Dead air fills conducting division of airway, cannot exchange gases
Anatomic dead space conducting division of airway
Physiologic dead space sum of anatomic dead space and any pathological alveolar dead space
Aveolar ventilation rate air that ventilates alveoli X respiratory rate directly relevant to ability to exchange gases
Spirometer measures ventilation
Tidal volume volume of air in one quiet breath
inspiratory reserve volume air in excess of tidal inspiration that can be inhaled with maximum effort
expiratory reserve volume air in excess of tidal expiration that can be exhaled with maximum effort
residual volume (keeps alveoli inflated) air remaining in lungs after maximum expiration
Vital capacity total amount of air that can be exhaled with effort after maximum inspiration assesses strength of thoracic muscles and pulmonary function
Inspiratory capacity maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal tidal expiration
Functional residual capacity amount of air in lungs after a normal tidal expiration
Total lung capacities maximum amount of air lungs can hold
Forced expiratory volume FEV % of vital capacity exhaled/ time healthy adult - 75 to 85% in 1 sec
Peak flow maximum speed of exhalation
Minute respiratory volume TV x respiratory rate, at rest 500 x 12 = 6 L/min maximum: 125 to 170 L/min
Challenges to respiratory volumes and capacities Age:dec lung compliance, respiratory m. weaken Exercise:maintains strength of respiratory m. Body size:proportional, big body/large lungs Restrictive disorders: dec compliance and vital capacity Obstruct DOs: itfr airflow, expir more effort/less compl
Surface Anatomy Thorax Serratus anterior Lianea semilunaris Tedinous insertion of rectus abdominus Linea alba Umbilicus Anterior superior spine of ilium External abdominal oblique Iliac crest Inguinal ligament Sternal Angle of Loui
Created by: teyonka