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Structure and Funct

Week 3

QuestionAnswer
Taste-chemical sense Gustation - sensation of taste results from action of chemicals on taste buds Lingual papillae
Taste Buds Taste cells apical microvilli serve as receptor surface synapse with sensory nerve fibers at their base Supporting cells Basal cells
Physiology of Taste Molecules must dissolve in saliva 1. Sweet - concentrated on tip 2. Salty - lateral margins 3. Sour - lateral margins 4. Bitter - posterior 5. Umami - taste of amino acids (MSG) Influenced by food texture, aroma, temperature, and appearance
Innervation of taste buds facial nerve (VII) - anterior 2/3’s of tongue glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) - posterior 1/3 vagus nerve (X) - palate, pharynx, epiglottis
Smell-chemical sense Olfactory mucosa contains receptor cells for olfaction highly sensitive up to 10,000 odors on 5cm2 of superior concha and nasal septum
Physiology of Smell Molecules bind to receptor on olfactory hair hydrophilic - diffuse through mucus hydrophobic - transport by odorant-binding protein Loss of smell onasmia
The nature of sound Sound - audible vibration of molecules vibrating object pushes air molecules Vestibularcochlear: Cranial Nerve VIII
PItch and loudness Pitch - frequency vibrates specific parts of ear hearing range is 20 (low pitch) - 20,000 Hz (cycles/sec) speech is 1500-4000 Loudness – amplitude; intensity of sound energy Audioometer: Hearing Tempanometer: motility of TM
Outer Ear Fleshy auricle (pinna) directs air vibrations down external auditory meatus cartilagenous and bony, S-shaped tunnel ending at eardrum glandular secretions and dead cells form cerumen (earwax)
Anatomy of middle ear Middle Ear: TM, Malleus, Incus, Stappes Air-filled tympanic cavity in temporal bone between tympanic membrane and oval window continuous with mastoid air cells Auditory/Estacion tube connects middle ear to throat
Middle ear Contains auditory tube (eustachian tube) connects to nasopharynx equalizes air pressure on tympanic membrane ear ossicles malleus incus stapes stapedius and tensor tympani muscles attach to stapes and malleus
Inner Ear Inner Ear: Oval window, Round window, Bony labyrinth - passageways in temporal bone Membranous labyrinth - fleshy tubes lining bony tunnels filled with endolymph (similar to intracellular fluid) floating in perilymph (similar to cerebrospinal fluid
Anatomy of cochlea Scala media (cochlear duct) separated from scala vestibuli by vestibular membrane scala tympani by basilar membrane Spiral organ (organ of corti) Chochlear problems cause sensorineural hearing loss
Physiology of Hearing-Middle Ear Tympanic membrane has 18 times area of oval window ossicles transmit enough force/unit area at oval window to vibrate endolymph in scala vestibuli Tympanic reflex – muscle contraction tensor tympani m. tenses tympanic membrane stapedius m. reduces m
Cochlear Hair Cells Stereocilia of Hair Cells -bend in response to movement of basilar membrane stimulates sensory dendrites at base Action potentials then transmitted to brain along the cochlear portion of CN VIII
Innervation of Inner ear Vestibular ganglia - visible in vestibular nerve Spiral ganglia - buried in modiolus of cochlea Vestibular goes labrinth Cochlear goes to semilunar/cochlear
Auditory proessing center Damage to either auditory cortex does not cause unilateral deafness (extensive decussation) Complete hearing loss on one side peripheral nervous system on out CNS will not present complete hearing loss on one side
Equillibrium Control of coordination and balance Receptors in vestibular apparatus semicircular ducts contain crista saccule and utricle contain macula Static equilibrium – perceived by macula perception of head orientation Dynamic equilibrium perception of mot
External Anatomy of Eye Superciliary ridge Eyebrow Eyelashes Palpebral fissure Lateral commissure Tarsal plate Pupil Superior palpebral sulcus Upper eyelid Iris Scelra Medial commissure Lower eyelid Inferior palpebral sulcus
Eyebrows Eyebrows provide facial expression
Eyelids Eyelids (palpebrae) block foreign objects, help with sleep, blink to moisten meet at corners (commissures) consist of orbicularis oculi muscle and tarsal plate covered with skin outside and conjunctiva inside tarsal glands secrete oil that reduces tea
Conjunctiva Transparent mucous membrane lines eyelids and covers anterior surface of eyeball except cornea Richly innervated and vascular (heals quickly)
Lacrimal Apparatus Tears flow across eyeball help to wash away foreign particles, help with diffusion of O2 and CO2 and contain bactericidal enzyme
Extrensic eye muscles 6 muscles inserting on eyeball 4 rectus, superior and inferior oblique muscles Innervated by cranial nerves III, IV and VI SO4 (cranial nerve IV) LR6 (cranial nerve VI)
Tunics of eyes Fibrous layer - sclera and cornea Vascular layer - choroid, ciliary body and iris Internal layer - retina and optic nerve
Optical components Structures refract light to focus on retina cornea:transparent cover on anterior surface of eyeball aqueous humor: serous fluid posterior to cornea, anterior to lens lens: changes shape focus light vitreous humor: jelly fills space btw lens/retina
Aqueous humor Produced by ciliary body, flows to posterior chamber through pupil to anterior chamber - reabsorbed into canal of Schlemm
Cataracts clouding of lens aging, diabetes, smoking, and UV light
Glaucoma death of retinal cells due to elevated pressure within the eye obstruction of scleral venous sinus colored halos and dimness of vision
Neural components Includes retina and optic nerve Retina forms as an outgrowth of the diencephalon attached at optic disc and at ora serrata pressed against rear of eyeball by vitreous Dettached retinas interrupt vision causing visual fields deffects
Detached retina Blow to head or lack of vitreous Blurry areas in field of vision Disrupts blood supply, leads to blindness
Principles of refraction Light striking the lens or cornea at a 90 degree angle is not bent. Cornea refracts light more than lens does due to shape of cornea lens becomes rounder to increase refraction for near vision to, aqueous humor bends, lens bends,then to brain
Near response/Emmetropia Allows eyes to focus on nearby object (that sends oblique light waves to eyes) convergence of eyes eyes orient their visual axis towards object constriction of pupil blocks peripheral light rays and reduces spherical aberration (blurry edges) accomod
Hyperopia farsighted (eyeball too short) correct with convex lenses
Myopia nearsighted (eyeball too long) correct with concave lenses
Photoreceptor cells Photoreceptors rod cells (night - scotopic vision) outer segment - stack of coinlike membranous discs studded with rhodopsin pigment molecules cone cells (color - photopic vision) outer segment tapers to a point
Scotopic system Rods sensitive – react even in dim light extensive neuronal convergence Edges of retina have widely-spaced rod cells, act as motion detectors
Color vision Primates have well developed color vision nocturnal vertebrates have only rods Cones named for absorption peaks of photopsins Color perception based on mixture of nerve signals
Color Blindness Hereditary lack of one photopsin red-green is common (lack either red or green cones) incapable of distinguishing red from green sex-linked recessive (8% of males)
Stereoscopic vision Depth perception - ability to judge distance to objects requires 2 eyes with overlapping visual fields panoramic vision has eyes on sides of head (horse) Fixation point farther away requires image focus medial to fovea closer results in image focus la
Visual projection pathway Some visual fields cross Right Lateral Field R Left Medial Field R Left Lateral Field L Right Medial Field L
Visual Info processing Some processing occurs in retina adjustments for contrast, brightness, motion and stereopsis Visual association areas in parietal and temporal lobes process visual data object location, motion, color, shape, boundaries store visual memories (words)
Created by: teyonka