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Structure and Funct

Weeks 1

Homeostasis Claude Bernard (1813-78) stable internal conditions regardless of external conditions Homeostasis Walter Cannon (1871-1945) coined the term fluctuates within limited range around a set point Loss causes illness or death
Negative Feedback Loop Body senses a change and activates mechanisms to reverse it Room temperature does not stay at set point of 68 degrees -- it only averages 68 degrees Off 70 degrees On 66 degrees
Human Thermoregulation Brain senses change in blood temperature if overheating, vessels dilate in the skin and sweating begins if too cold, vasoconstriction in the skin and shivering begins
Control of Blood Pressure Circulatory stretch receptors detect a rise in BP Cardiac center in brainstem sends out nerve signals Heart slowed and BP lowered
Structure of Feedback Loop Receptor = senses change Integrator = control center that responds Effector = structures that restore homeostasis
Positive Feedback Loop Self-amplifying change leads to change in the same direction Normal way of producing rapid changes occurs with childbirth, blood clotting, protein digestion, and generation of nerve signals
Life-THreatening Fever Temperature > 108 degrees F increases metabolic rate body produces heat even faster Cycle continues to reinforce itself Becomes fatal at 113 degrees F
7 Body Cavities 1) Cranial cavity 2) Vetebral canal 3) Pleural cavities (2) 4) Pericardial cavity 5) Adominal cavity 6) Pelvic cavity
Quadrants Right Upper Left Upper Right Lower Left Lower
11 Organ Systems 1) Integumentary 2) Skeletal 3) Muscular 4) Lymphatic 5) Respiratory 6) Urinary 7) Nervous 8) Endocrine 9) Circulatory 10) Digestive 11) Male/Female Reproductive
9 Body Regions 1) a R. Hypochondriac b Epigastric c L. Hypochondriac 2) a R. Lumbar b Umbilical c L. Lumbar 3) a R. Inguinal b Hypogastric c L. Inguinal
Anterior landmarks Cephallic Facial Cervical Thoracic Stern Pectoral Umbilical Abdominal Inguinal Pubic/External genitalia Femoral crural Tarsal Pedal Dorsum Plantar Surface Acromial Axillary Brachial Cubital Antebrachial Carpal Palmar Coxal Patellar
Posterior landmarks Cranial Nuchal Interscapular Scapular Vertebral Lumbar Sacral Gluteal Dorsum of Hand Perineal Femoral Popiteal Crural Tarsal Calcaneal
Membrane Transport Plasma membrane selectively permeable controls what enters or leaves cell Passive transport requires no ATP movement down concentration gradient filtration and simple diffusion Active transport requires ATP movement against concentration gradient
Filtration Movement of particles through a selectively permeable membrane by hydrostatic pressure Examples filtration of nutrients from blood capillaries into tissue fluids filtration of wastes from the blood in the kidneys
Simple Diffusion Net movement of particles from area of high concentration to area of low concentration due to their constant, random motion Also known as movement down the concentration gradient
Membrane Permiability Diffusion through lipid bilayer Nonpolar, hydrophobic substances diffuse through lipid layer Diffusion through channel proteins water and charged hydrophilic solutes diffuse through channel proteins Cells control permeability by regulating number of c
Osmosis Diffusion of water through a membrane from area of more water to area of less water
Osmotic Pressure Amount of hydrostatic pressure required to stop osmosis Osmosis slows due to filtration of water back across membrane due to inc hydrostatic pressure
Osmolarity One osmole = 1 mole of dissolved particles Osmolarity = # osmoles/liter of solution
Tonicity Tonicity - ability of a solution to affect fluid volume and pressure within a cell depends on concentration and permeability of solute
Effects of Tonicity on RBCs Hypotonic, isotonic and hypertonic solutions affect the fluid volume of a red blood cell. Notice the crenated and swollen cells.
Carrier Mediated Transport Proteins carry solutes across cell membrane Specificity solute binds to a specific receptor site on carrier protein differs from membrane enzymes because solutes are unchanged Types of carrier mediated transport facilitated diffusion and active tra
Membrane Carrier Saturation Transport maximum = transport rate when all carriers are occupied
Membrane Carriers Uniporter: carries only one solute at a time Symporter: carries 2 or more solutes simultaneously in same direction (cotransport) Antiporter: 1. carries 2 or more solutes in opposite directions 2.sodium-potassium pump brings in K+ and removes Na
Facilitated Diffusion Transport of solute across membrane down its concentration gradient No ATP used Solute binds to carrier, it changes shape then releases solute on other side of membrane
Active Transport Transport of solute across membrane up (against) its concentration gradient ATP energy required to change carrier Examples: sodium-potassium pump bring amino acids into cell pump Ca2+ out of cell
Sodium Potassium Pump Needed because Na+ and K+ constantly leak through membrane half of daily calories utilized for pump One ATP utilized to exchange three Na+ pushed out for two K+ brought in to cell
Function of NA/K Pump Regulation of cell volume swelling stimulates the Na+- K+ pump to inc ion concentration, inc osmolarity and cell swelling Heat production (thyroid hormone increase # of pumps; heat a by-product) Maintenance of a membrane potential: inside -/outside +
Vesicular Tramsport Transport large particles or fluid droplets through membrane in vesicles uses ATP Exocytosis –transport out of cell Endocytosis –transport into cell phagocytosis – engulfing large particles pinocytosis – taking in fluid droplets receptor mediated e
Phagocytosis Keeps tissues free of debris and infectious microorganisms.
Pinocytosis Taking in droplets of ECF occurs in all human cells Membrane caves in, then pinches off into the cytoplasm as pinocytotic vesicle
Trancytosis Transport of a substance across a cell Receptor mediated endocytosis moves it into cell and exocytosis moves it out the other side ie insulin
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis Selective endocytosis Receptor specificity Clathrin-coated vesicle in cytoplasm uptake of LDL from bloodstream
Exocytosis Secreting material or replacement of plasma membrane
Histology Study of Tissues Epithelial Tissue Connective Tissue Nervous and Muscular Tissue Intercellular Junctions, Glands and Membranes Tissue Growth, Development, Death and Repair
Epithelial Tissue Layers of closely adhering cells Flat sheet with upper surface exposed to the environment or an internal body cavity No blood vessels underlying connective tissue supplies oxygen Rests on basement membrane thin layer of collagen and adhesive proteins
Simple Vs Stratified Epithelia Simple epithelium contains one layer of cells named by shape of cells Stratified epithelium contains more than one layer named by shape of apical cells
Simple Squamous Epithelium Single row of flat cells Permits diffusion of substances Secretes serous fluid Alveoli, glomeruli, endothelium, and serosa
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium Single row cube-shaped cells with microvilli Absorption and secretion, mucus production Liver, thyroid, mammary and salivary glands, bronchioles, and kidney tubules
Simple Columnar Epithelium Single row tall, narrow cells oval nuclei in basal half of cell Absorption and secretion; mucus secretion Lining of GI tract, uterus, kidney and uterine tubes
Stratified Epithelium More than one layer of cells Named for shape of surface cells exception is transitional epithelium Deepest cells on basement membrane Variations keratinized epithelium has surface layer of dead cells nonkeratinized epithelium lacks the layer of dea
Keratinized Startified Squamous Multilayered epithelium covered with dead squamous cells, packed with keratin epidermal layer of skin Retards water loss and barrier to organisms
Nonkeratinized Stratified Squamous Multilayered surface epithelium forming moist, slippery layer Tongue, oral mucosa, esophagus and vagina
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium Two or more cell layers; surface cells square Secretes sweat; produces sperm and hormones Sweat gland ducts; ovarian follicles and seminiferous tubules
Transitional Epithelium Multilayered epithelium surface cells that change from round to flat when stretched allows for filling of urinary tract ureter and bladder
Connective Tissue Widely spaced cells separated by fibers and ground substance Most abundant and variable tissue type Functions connects organs gives support and protection (physical and immune) stores energy and produces heat movement and transport of materials
Fibroblasts produce fibers and ground substance
Collagen fibers Collagen fibers (white fibers) tough, stretch resistant, yet flexible tendons, ligaments and deep layer of the skin
Areolar Tissue Loose arrangement of fibers and cells in abundant ground substance Underlies all epithelia, between muscles, passageways for nerves and blood vessels
Reticular Tissue Loose network of reticular fibers and cells Forms supportive stroma (framework) for lymphatic organs Found in lymph nodes, spleen, thymus and bone marrow
Adipose Tissue Empty-looking cells with thin margins; nucleus pressed against cell membrane Energy storage, insulation, cushioning subcutaneous fat and organ packing brown fat (hibernating animals) produces heat
Dense Regular Connective Tissue Densely, packed, parallel collagen fibers compressed fibroblast nuclei Tendons and ligaments hold bones together and attach muscles to bones
Dense Irregular Connective Tissue Densely packed, randomly arranged, collagen fibers and few visible cells withstands stresses applied in different directions deeper layer of skin; capsules around organs
Cartilage Supportive connective tissue with rubbery matrix Chondroblasts produce matrix called chondrocytes once surrounded No blood vessels diffusion brings nutrients and removes wastes heals slowly Types of cartilage: hyaline, fibrocartilage and elastic car
Hyaline Cratilage Rubbery matrix; dispersed collagen fibers; clustered chondrocytes in lacunae supports airway, eases joint movements Ends of bones at movable joints; sternal ends of ribs; supportive material in larynx, trachea, bronchi and fetal skeleton
elastic Cartilage Hyaline cartilage with elastic fibers Provides flexible, elastic support external ear and epiglottis
Fribrocartilage Hyaline cartilage with extensive collagen fibers (never has perichondrium) Resists compression and absorbs shock pubic symphysis, meniscus and intervertebral discs
Bone Spongy bone - spongy in appearance delicate struts of bone covered by compact bone found in heads of long bones Compact bone - solid in appearance more complex arrangement cells and matrix surround vertically oriented blood vessels in long bones
Bone Tissue (compact bone) Calcified matrix in lamellae around central canal Osteocytes in lacunae between lamellae Skeletal support; leverage for muscles; mineral storage
Blood Variety of cells and cell fragments; some with nuclei and some without Nonnucleated pale pink cells or nucleated white blood cells Found in heart and blood vessels
Nerve tissue Large cells with long cell processes surrounded by smaller glial cells lacking processes Internal communication between cells in brain, spinal cord, nerves and ganglia
Muscle Tissue Elongated cells stimulated to contract Exert physical force on other tissues move limbs push blood through a vessel expel urine Source of body heat 3 histological types of muscle skeletal, cardiac and smooth
Skeletal Muscle Long, cylindrical, unbranched cells with striations and multiple peripheral nuclei movement, facial expression, posture, breathing, speech, swallowing and excretion
Cardiac Muscle Short branched cells with striations and intercalated discs one central nuclei per cell Pumping of blood by cardiac (heart) muscle
Smooth Muscle Short fusiform cells; nonstriated with only one central nucleus sheets of muscle in viscera; iris; hair follicles and sphincters swallowing, GI tract functions, labor contractions, control of airflow, erection of hairs and control of pupil
Diffusion Rates Factors affecting diffusion rate through a membrane: temperature - inc temp., inc motion of particles molecular weight - larger molecules move slower steepness of concentrated gradient - inc difference, inc rate membrane surface area - inc area, inc rate membrane permeability - inc permeability, inc rate
Hypotonic Solution Hypotonic solution low concentration of nonpermeating solutes (high water concentration) cells absorb water, swell and may burst (lyse)
Hypertonic Solution Hypertonic solution has high concentration of nonpermeating solutes (low water concentration) cells lose water + shrivel (crenate) *Hypoosmotic= less particles dissolved can be hypertonic
Isotonic Solution Isotonic solution = normal saline *Hyperosmotic=more particles dissolved can be isotonic
Secondary active transport (No ATP used) steep concentration gradient of Na+ and K+ maintained across the cell membrane carriers move Na+ with 2nd solute easily into cell SGLT saves glucose in kidney
Pseudostratified Epithelium Single row of cells some not reaching free surface nuclei give layer stratified look Secretes and propels respiratory mucus
Macrophages phagocytize foreign material and activate immune system arise from monocytes (WBCs)
Neutrophils wander in search of bacteria
Plasma cells synthesize antibodies arise from WBCs
Mast cells secrete heparin inhibits clotting histamine that dilates blood vessels
Adipocytes store triglycerides
Reticular fibers thin, collagen fibers coated with glycoprotein framework in spleen and lymph nodes
Elastic fibers thin branching fibers of elastin protein stretch and recoil like rubberband (elasticity) skin, lungs and arteries stretch and recoil
Gelatinous Material-Ground Substance absorbs compressive forces
Glycosaminoglycans-Ground Substance chondroitin sulfate disaccharides that attract sodium and hold water role in regulating water and electrolyte balance
Proteoglycan-Ground Substance (bottlebrush-shaped molecule) create bonds with cells or extracellular macromolecules
Adhesive Glycoproteins-Ground Substance protein-carbohydrate complexes bind cell membrane to collagen outside the cells
Created by: teyonka