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Pathology neuro

Tau pathology Much more spatial course than amyloid. First seen in temporal lobe>frontal>parietal (not really seen in occipital lobe)
Neurofibrillary Tangles NT is due to TAU and has a more typical spatial course than amyloid plaques. Tau causes death of neuron and is highly resistant to degradation
TDP-43 pathology Normally found in nucleus; should not be found in cytoplasm-->in FTLD-TDP43 it is found outside of the nucleus
akathesia (extrapyramidal)--condition marked by motor restlessness, ranging from anxiety to inability to lie or sit quietly or to sleep, a common extrapyramidal side effect of neuroleptic drugs.
Glioblastoma Multiforme Typically presents with seizures or subtle deficits (memory). Typically leads to death because of mass effect and not metastasis. Most patients die within year of diagnosis
TDP-43 normally only in cytoplasm. In pathological states it is found in the cytoplasm. Diffuse inclusions =Skein-Like -->ALS
Parkinson's Lewy Bodies (alpha-synuclein inclusions in substancia nigra, locus cereleus, hypothalamus, and dorsal nucleus of vagus) TDP-43 pathology
Lewy Bodies Parkinson unless it is also found in the cortex: in that case it is DIFFUSE LEWY body dsx. Lewy bodies (in cortex) + neurofibrillary tangles --> alzheimers
Florid Inclusions Inclusions seen in HIV positive patients with opportunistic CMV infections
EMG with spontaneous activity (fibrillation potential) and a “myopathic” pattern induced by voluntary muscle activity Polymyositis (may be also inclusion body myositis?)
myopathy differential (+) auto-antibodies- (EG ANA) 1)Dermatomyositis--if papular rash on face or joints on hand 2)Polymyositis-- 3)No Ab-- Inclusion body myositis
Todd's paralysis/paresis focal weakness in a part of the body after a seizure
Fried Egg appearance this pathological finding is common in oligodendrogliomas due to cytoplasmic swelling
Perivascular pseudorosettes may describe _____ pathological finding in ependymoma
Negri Bodies are eosinophilic inclusions present in cerebellum of patients infected with rabies
what type of cancer would you be looking at if you saw "whorls," Psammoma bodies/Calcification? meningioma
Chronic Inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy chronic GBS. Associated with certain HLAs and not a antecedent viral illness. Onion bulb changes are commonly found
Which inflammatory myopathy does not respond to glucocorticoids? Inclusion body myositis...this is the disease within this class that is more common in males and is unresponsive to glucocorticoids
Spinal muscular atrophy is due to mutations in what gene? SMN-(survival motor neuron gene) This gene is needed in most cells, but leads to selective degeneration of lower motor neurons.
Which subtypes of SMA are consistent with normal life span Type 2 and 3; type 1 usually causes leads to death by the age of 2.
ALS pathology motor neurons dsx (SOD1) mutation is needed for onset --astrocytes and inflammatory cells secrete toxic substances (pathological) and are responsible for progression
Leigh's (subacute necrotizing encepalopathy) a mitochondrial abnormality
Alzheimer's type II Astrocytes (not Alzheimer's disease). A pathological finding associated with hepatic disease and Wilson's dsx.
Wilson's disease an AR inherited mutation in copper-transporting ATPase. Onset is usually in the 2nd decade of life. You can find copper in their urine and treat this with chelating agents
Kernicterus Due to high levels of circulating bilirubin. Typically in babies who lack a fully conjugating system. Will see yellowing of brain
What are some bedside signs of frontal lesions The inability to suppress primitive reflexes (grasp, suck, and root reflex). Inability to have an antisaccade
Describe the behaviors you might see in ANOSOGNOSIA. The patient who has a parietal lesion(s) will not recognize their contralateral limb
Rolandic (Central mid-temporal spikes)are present in benign focal epilepsy of childhood
Ganglioglioma Is most common in children and is associated with seizures. On imaging you see cystic enhancing mural nodules in temporal lobe. Usually recur due to glial component
LOH of 1q and 19q vs no LOH patients with a deletion are much more likely to survive 10-15 and benefit from surgery. Tumors with loss of heterozygosity are responsive to treatment to chemo
Medulloblastoma is a tumor of the CNS mainly seen in children. they present with ataxia and increased ICP. They are malignant, rapidly growing and undifferentiated (in cerebellum)
The treatment of medulloblastoma is chemotherapy. Though this is a highly malignant tumor it is very sensitive to radiation. Side: high levels of radiation will cause permanent deficits in the kids.
Schwannomas and meningiomas are both typically cured with surgery. Meningiomas become malignant and invade (will show psamomma bodies and whorls).
Created by: 16310914