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A&P chapter 6


adenoids the nasopharyngeal tonsils located in the nasopharynx; they protect entry into respiratory system
allergy a hypersensitivity or over reaction by the body to a particular antigen
anaphylaxis anaphyalactic shock; a systematic reaction or a severe response to an allergen that can be life threatening
antibiotic medication capable of inhibiting growth or killing pathogenic bacterial micro-organisms that is not effective against viral infections
antifungal antimycotic; agent that destroys or inhibits the growth of fungi; used locally on athlete's foot or systematically for nail fungus
antigen a substance that the body regards as being foreign; causes immature B cells to become plasma cells
antihistamines block release of histamines to relieve or prevent the symptoms of hay fever, which is a common allergy to wind-born pollens or other types of allergies
antineoplastic a medication that blocks the development, growth, or proliferation (rapid production) of malignant cells
antiviral agents treat viral infections or provide temporary immunity by interfering with viral replication
acquired immunity active immunity; production of antibodies against a specific antigen by the immune system by contracting an infectious disease such as the immunity to chicken pox
artificial immunity protection one receives from a vaccine, such as a flu vaccine
B cells specialized lymphocytes that produce and secrete antibodies; their cell membranes have specific antibodies; some B cells turn into plasma cells
bacilli rod shaped, spore forming bacteria; causes tetanus and TB
bacteria one celled, microscopic organisms; includes bacilli, rickettsia, spirochetes, staphylococci, and streptococci
bactericide a substance that causes death to bacteria; includes penicillins and sephalosporins
bacteriostatic an agent that slows down or stops the growth of bacteria; includes tetracycline, sulfonamide, and erythromycin
benign tumor a non-cancerous growth that can cause problems by placing pressure on adjacent structures; usually don't reoccur with a better chance of recovery
bone marrow produces blood cells
brachytheraphy the use of radioactive materials in contact or implanted into the tissues to be treated
chicken pox varicella; caused by the herpes virus, is highly contagious; characterized by a fever and a rash consisting of hundreds of itchy, fluid-filled blisters that burst and form crust
complement group of proteins that normally circulate in blood in an inactive form; they help kill harmful cells by drilling holes in cell membranes and marking foreign invaders to attract phagocytes to destroy them
corticosteroid a hormone-like preparation administered primarily as an anti-inflammatory and as an immunosuppressant
Crohn's disease a chronic autoimmune disorder that occurs anywhere in the digestive tract, however it most often found in the ileum and in the colon
cytotoxic a medicine that kills or damages cells
functions of the lymphatic system absorbs fats and fat soluble vitamins from the small intestines; removes waste from the tissues; provides aid to the immune system
Hepatitis B a blood-borne disease that affects the liver and is transmitted through contact of blood or other bodily fluids that are contaminated with the virus; prevented by the hepatitis B vaccine
histology a study of the structure, composition, and function of tissue
immune response antigen-antibody reaction; antibodies are produced to find and kill antigens; requires the actions of many specialized cells
immune system maintains good health and protects the body from harmful substances
immunization a vaccination or artificial immunity that provides protection for susceptible individuals from communicable diseases by the administration of a vaccine to provide immunity
immunosuppressant a treatment to repress or interfere with the ability of the immune system to respond to stimulation by antigens; a medication used by transplant patients to prevent rejection
infectious mononucleosis mono; caused by the EBV; causes fever, sore throat, enlarged lymph nodes, and possible swelling of the spleen and liver involvement
interferon a family of proteins produced by the T cells within hours of contracting a virus whose specialty is fighting viruses by slowing or stopping their multiplication
invasive lobular carcinoma infiltrating lobular carcinoma; a cancer that starts in the milk glands. it breaks through the wall of the gland and then invades the fatty tissue of the breast
Kaposi's sarcoma opportunistic infection that is associated with HIV; a cancer that causes patches of abnormal tissues to grow under the skin in the lining of the mouth, nose, and throat or in other organs
lacteals specialized structure of the lymphatic system located in the walls of the small intestines
lingual tonsils lymphatic tissue located at the base of the tongue
lymph fluid and vessels returns cellular waste back to the circulatory system
lymph nodes specialized lymphocytes that are capable of destroying pathogens or killing viruses by filtering bacteria or harmful substances from lymph
lymph vessels have valves to prevent the backward flow of lymph and returns intracellular fluid to the veins
lymphocytes specialized WBC formed in the bone marrow as stem cells
macrophage type of WBC that surround and kill invading cells; they remove dead cells and stimulate the action of other immune cells
malaria disease caused by a parasite that lives in certain mosquitoes; is transferred to humans by the bite of an infectious mosquito
malignant harmful, capable of spreading, potentially life-threatening tumor
measles an acute, highly contagious infection caused by the rubeola virus and transmitted by the respiratory droplets; symptoms include, high fever, runny nose, coughing, photophobia, red itchy rash over the entire body, and koplixs spots in the mouth
metastasized process by which cancer spreads from one place to another or from the primary site to a secondary site
multiple sclerosis progressive autoimmune disorder that affects the nervous system
nasopharyngeal tonsils adenoids that are located in the nasopharynx
natural immunity immunity passed from the mother to her fetus before birth that only lasts for a short time
parasites plant or animal that lives on or in another organism at the expense of that organism; not bacteria
peyers patches located on the walls of the ileum or in the intestines; they form lymphocytes
rabies an acute viral infection that is mostly transmitted to humans by the bite or saliva of an infected animal
rubella the German measles or the 3-day measles; it is a viral infection characterized by a low grade fever, swollen glands, inflamed eyes, and a fine pink rash; causes congenital abnormalities
sarcoma a malignant tumor that arises from connected tissues including hard tissues (bone), soft tissues, and liquid tissues
shingles herpes zoster; acute viral infection characterized by painful skin eruptions that follow the underlying route of an inflamed nerve, occurs when a dormant chicken pox virus is reactivated
skin wraps the body in a physical barrier that prevents invading organisms from entering the body
spirochete spiral shaped bacteria that have flexible walls and are capable of movement
spleen a sack-like mass of lymphoid tissue located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen; filters microorganisms and other foreign material from the blood; a gland that plays an important role in the immune and cardiovascular systems
stage 1 breast cancer cancer that has not spread beyond the milk duct or past the breast; no larger than 2cm
staphylococci staph infection; a group of 30 species of bacteria that form irregular groups or clusters resembling grapes
streptococci bacteria that forms a chain
structures of the lymphatic system lymph, lymphatic vessels and ducts, lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, spleen, lacteals, peyer's patches, the vermiform appendix, and lymphocytes
synthetic immunoglobulins immune serum; produced in a lab; used as a post exposure preventative measure against certain viruses including rabies and hepatitis
T cell T lymphocytes; small lymphocytes that develop in the thymus as a result of exposure to the hormone thymosin which is secreted by the thymus; produce inferferon and lymphokines and release a substance that attracts phagies and is part of the immune system
thymus located superior to the heart; endocrine gland that assists the immune system and plays an important role in the endocrine system and helps mature T cells
tonsils 3 masses of lymph node tissue that form a protective ring around the back of the nose and upper throat that protect the entrance to the respiratory system
tuberculosis TB; caused by the bacilli bacteria
varicella chicken pox caused by the herpes simplex
vermiform appendix hangs from the lower portion of the cecum (first section of the large intestine); lymphatic tissue thought to play a role in the immune system
western blot blood test that produces more accurate results than the ELISA test; performed the confirm the diagnosis of HIV when the ELISA test is positive
villi small, finger like projections that line the small intestine
lymph clear watery fluid that transports waste products and proteins out of the spaces between the cells of the body tissues; destroys bacteria or other pathogens that are present in the tissues
lymphatic capillaries microscopic, blind-ended tubes located near the surface of the body
thoracic duct largest lymphatic vessel in the body; empties into the left subclavian vein
cervical lymph nodes located along the sides of the neck
axillary lymph nodes located in the arm pits
inguinal lymph nodes located in the groin area of the lower body
palatine tonsils located on the left and right sides of the throat, in the area that is visible through the mouth
splenic pertaining to the spleen
hemolytic function of the spleen; destroying of worn out red blood cells and releasing their hemoglobin for reuse
pathogens disease producing, microorganisms
allergens substances that produce allergic reactions
toxins poisons or harmful substances
malignant cells potentially life-threatening cancer cells
antibody a disease fighting protein created by the immune system in response to the presence of a specific antigen
phagocyte large WBC that can destroy substances such as cell debris, dust, pollen, and pathogens by the process of phagocytosis
phagocytosis process of destroying pathogens by surrounding and swallowing them
allergic reaction occurs when the body's immune system reacts to a harmless allergen such as pollen, food, or animal dander as if it were a dangerous invader
histamine substance produced by the body that causes the itching, sneezing, watery eyes, and runny nose of an allergic reaction
monoclonal antibodies any class of antibodies produced in a lab by identical offspring or a clone or exact replica of specific cells
pathogen microorganism, living organism that is so small it can only be seen by the aid of a microscope, that causes a disease in humans
Created by: Redd



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