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MC Bio 205 ch 18

blood

QuestionAnswer
functions of blood transportation of oxygen, nutrients, hormones, waste products | regulation of body temp, pH, and water content of cells | protection against injury + disease
physical characteristics of blood temp: 38C, slightly higher than body temp | high O2 = bright red/low O2 = dark red
gross composition of blood 45% formed elements, 55% plasma
ratio of formed elements >99% RBCs | <1% WBCs
composition of plasma 91.5% water | 7% proteins | 1.5% solutes other than proteins (electrolytes, nutrients, gases, hormones, enzymes, vitamins, waste products)
albumins the most plentiful plasma protein (54% of all plasma proteins) | F/maintaining proper blood osmotic pressure
globulins plasma proteins (38% of all plasma proteins) | family includes immunoglobulins, aka antibodies
fibrinogen comprises 7% of all plasma proteins | F/assists clotting
hematocrit the proportion of total blood volume comprised by RBCs | normal range for adult women: 38-46% | for men: 40-54%
erythropoietin the hormone that stimulates production of RBCs
anemia an abnormally low level of RBCs
polycythemia an abnormally high level of RBCs
hemopoiesis the production of formed elements | occurs in red bone marrow
two first-generation children of pluripotent stem cells myeloid stem cells (which stay in marrow and produce RBCs and most WBCs) and lymphoid stem cells (which end their lives in lymph nodes and produce T cells and B cells)
precursor cells derive from myeloid and lymphoid stem cells | over several cell divisions, develop into a specific type of formed element
hemoglobin the oxygen-carrying protein in RBCs | each RBC carries approx 280 million hemoglobin molecules
erythrocytes red blood cells | A/biconcave discs, 8 micrometers in diameter | SA/no nucleus
globin the large protein that is the largest part of a hemoglobin molecule | it has 4 polypeptide chains
heme a ringlike nonprotein pigment with an iron ion at the center | each hemoglobin molecule has 4
how RBCs die after approx 120 days, they rupture | then are broken down by macrophages in spleen and liver | globin broken down into amino acids
transferrin a plasma protein that transports iron ions to the red bone marrow, where they are used by RBC precursors to synthesize hemoglobin
bilirubin a yellow-orange pigment, converted from the non-iron portions of broken-down heme | enters the liver, where it becomes bile
erythropoiesis the process of RBC formation | governed by a negative feedback loop | when hypoxia occurs, kidneys release more erythropoietin
proethyroblast the earliest RBC precursor cell
reticulocyte the last RBC precursor cell | has no nucleus | leaves the marrow and enters bloodstream
hypoxia cellular oxygen deficiency
antigen [contraction of "antibody generator"] | a substance that has immunogenicity (the ability to provoke an immune response) and reactivity (the ability to react with the cells or antibodies that result from the immune response)
antigens and antibodies in the ABO blood group e.g., if you have Type A blood, you have A antigens on the surfaces of your RBCs, and you have anti-B antibodies in your plasma
agglutination clumping of RBCs | occurs after incompatible blood transfusions
two broad categories of WBC granular WBCs and agranular WBCs
three major types of granular WBCs eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils
eosinophils comprise 2-4% of all WBCs | A/visible nucleus, often with 2 or 3 lobes | A/granules stain red-orange with acidic dyes
functions of eosinophils combat effects of histamine in allergic reactions | phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes | destroy certain parasitic worms
basophils comprise 0.5-1% of all WBCs | A/nucleus typically obscured by granules | A/granules stain purple with basic dyes
functions of basophils liberate heparin, histamine, and serotonin in allergic reactions that intensify the overall inflammatory response
neutrophils comprise 60-70% of all WBCs | A/has smaller granules that stain pale lilac | A/nucleus with several lobes
functions of neutrophils phagocytosis: destruction of bacteria with lysozyme, defensins, and strong oxidants
two major types of agranular WBCs lymphocytes and monocytes
lymphocytes 20-25% of all WBCs | include T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells | A/sky-blue cytoplasm forms a ring around the nucleus | A/sometimes small
functions of lymphocytes mediate immune responses, including antigen-antobody reactions | T cells attack viruses | B cells develop into plasma cells, which secrete antibodies | natural killer cells attack a variety of microbes and tumors
monocytes comprise 3-8% of all WBCs | A/large | A/horseshoe-shaped nucleus
functions of monocytes phagocytosis (after transforming into fixed or wandering macrophages) | they arrive at infections later than neutrophils, but they're more efficient
what abnormal neutrophil counts might mean high: bacterial infection, burns, stress, inflammation | low: radiation exposure, drug toxicity, B12 deficiency
what abnormal lymphocyte counts might mean high: viral infection, some leukemias | low: prolonged illness, immunosuppression
what abnormal monocyte counts might mean high: viral or fungal infection, tuberculosis, some leukemias | low: bone marrow suppression, treatment with cortisol
what abnormal eonosophil counts might mean high: allergic reactions, parasitic infection, autoimmune disease | low: drug toxicity, stress
what abnormal basophil counts might mean high: allergic reactions, leukemias, cancers, hypothyroidism | low: pregnancy, ovulation, hyperthyroidism
emigration departure of WBCs from bloodstream, through capillary walls (RBCs can't do this)
chemotaxis the chemical-signaling process by which phagocytes are attracted to pathogens and inflamed tissues
defensins proteins contained within neutrophils that exhibit a broad range of antibiotic activity against bacteria and fungi
life span of WBCs generally only a few days | only a few hours during infection | but some lymphocytes live for months or years
platelets aka thrombocytes | clear cell fragments derived from precursor megakaryocytes | per liter, fewer than RBCs but more than WBCs | F/form plugs to fill gaps in blood-vessel walls | F/assist in clotting
hemostasis sequence of responses that stops bleeding when blood vessels are injured
vascular spasm the first response in hemostasis | vessel walls contract
thrombus a clot in an unbroken blood vessel
embolus a blood clot, bubble of air, or piece of debris transported by the bloodstream
Created by: dglenn34