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KPE 253--Chapter 17

Heart attack -occurs when the heart muscle tissue dies because its blood supply is reduced or stopped. -heart muscle dies due to lack of oxygen
Cardiac arrest when the heart stops
If your suspect a heart attack for any reason, you should? seek medical attention at once
Possible signs and symptoms of a heart attack -pressure, squeezing in chest that lasts up to or longer than 20 minutes or that comes and goes -pain spreading to the shoulders, neck, or arms -dizziness, sweating, nausea -shortness of breath
Victims with heart attact symptoms who are brought to a hospital by ambulance receive clot-dissolving drugs ______ sooner than those arriving by other means sooner
Care for heart attack -1. activate EMS -2. monitor breathing. Give CPR if needed -3. help the victim to the most comfortable resting position, usually sitting. Loosen clothing around the neck and midriff. Be calf and reassuring
What do you do if someone is having a heart attack? (P2) 4. if the victim is left and able to swallow, give 1 adult aspirin or two four the chewable children's aspirin 5. find out whether the victim is using nitroglycerin tablets 6. if victim is unresponsive, check breathing and start CPR if needed
angina pectoris -can result form coronary heart disease just as heart attack does -occurs when the heart muscle does not get as much blood as it needs -chest pain due to limiting blood flow to the heart tissue
Recognizing angina -1. chest pain described as crushing, squeezing, or like somebody standing on victim's chest -2. Paon can spread to teh jaw, the arms (frequently the left arm), and mid-back 3. pain usually lasts from 3-10 mins, no longer than 15
Recognizing angina (cont) 4. can be associated with shortness of breath, nausea, or sweating 5. Victim feels anxious
Care for people with Angina 1. Give victim his or her own nitroglycerin (if they have it) 2. if the pain does not quickly subside, suspect a heart attack and care for the victim accordingly
What are some chest pain that has nothing to do with the heart? -muscle or ri pain -respiratory infections such as pneumonia, bronchitis, pleuritis, or lung injury -indigestion
risk factors you cannot change about heart disease -heredity: tendencies appear in family lines -sex: men have a greater risk, although heart attck is still the leading cause of death among women. -age: most heart attack victims are 65 years or older
risk factors you can change about heart disease -cigarette smoking: smokers have more than twice the risk of heart attack as nonsmokers -high blood pressure: this condition adds to the heart's workload -high blood cholesterol level: too much cholesterol in the blood can cause a buildup on the arterie
risk factors you can control for heart disease diabetes: this condition affects the blood's cholesterol and triglyceride levels -obesity -physical inactivity -stress
why don't they call? (heart attack) -they thought the symptoms would go away -the symptoms were not severe enough -they thought it was a different illness -they were worried about costs -afraid of hospitals -embarrassment -wait for a better time -did not want to find out what was wro
Chest Pain- Muscle or rib pain from exercise or injury Characteristics- reproduced by movement tender spot when pressed Care: -rest -aspirin or ibuprofen
Chest Pain- Respiratory infection Characteristics: -cough -fever -sore throat -production of sputum Care: -antibiotics
Chest Pain- Indigestion Characteristics: -belching -heartburn -nausea -sour taste Care: antacids
Angina pectoris Characteristics: -lasts less than 10 minutes (but pain is similar to that of a heart attack) Care: Rest, victim's nitroglycerin
Heart attack (myocardial infarction) Characteristics: -lasts more than 10 minutes -pressure, squeezing, or pain near center of the chest -pain spreads to shoulders, neck, or arms -lightheadedness, fainting, sweating, nausea, shortness of breath
Heart attack (myocardial infarction) (care) Care: -call EMS -check breathing -resting position -victim's nitroglycerin
heart attack 235
Care for people with angina -1.If victim has his or her own nitroglycerin, assist the victim in using it appropriately -2. if the pain does not quickly subside, suspect a heart attack and care for the victim
Stroke -also called brain attack -occurs when part of the blood flow to the brain is suddenly cut off
Risk factors of stroke -age (older than 50 years) -use of birth control pills and age older than 30 years -hypertension (high blood pressure) -high blood cholesterol levels -diabetes -heart disease -sickle cell disease -substance abuse, particularly crack cocaine -famil
What is the most common type of stroke? Ischemic, a clot forms in an artery in the brain.
Difference between transient ischemic atttacts and a stroke is.. The symptoms of a TIA are transient, lasting from several minutes (75% lasts less than 5 minutes) to several hours, wit a return to normal neurologic function
TIA -mini-stroke -people who have a TIA will have a stroke within 2 to 5 years after the first TIA
Stroke--what to look for? weakness, numbness, or paralysis in face, arm, leg-usually one side only -blurred or decreased vision -problems speaking/understanding -dizziness or loss of balance -sudden, severe headache -PERL doesn't work
Stroke--what to do? 1. active EMS 2. check AVPU, ABC's ets. 3. if responsive, lay with head elevated slightly 4. if unresponsive, but breathing, place rescue position.
asthma -a condition marked by recurrent attacks of breathing difficulty, often with wheezing, due to spasmodic construction of the air passages, often as a response to allergens or to mucous plugs in the bronchioles -most common in children and young adults
asthma components 1. airway obstruction 2. airway inflammation 3. overly sensitive airways
triggers of asthma -respiratory tract infection -exposure to temperature extremes -strong odors, perfumes, talcum power, deodorizers, paint -occupational exposures: dust, fumes, and smoke -certain drugs -exercise -emotional stress -allergens -air pollution
signs of asthma -coughing -cyanosis -inability to speak in complete sentences tihout pausing for breath -nostrils flaring with each breath -difficulty breathing, including wheezing
care for asthma 1. place victim in comfortable, upright position and leaning slighly forward 2. monitor breathing 3. ask about asthma medication victim he or she is using 4. if victim does not respond well, seek medical care immediately
hyperventilation fast, deep breathing, is common during emotional stress. the victim might be hysterical or quite calm.
signs of hyperventilation 1. dizziness or lighheadedness 2. numbness 3. tingling of the abnds and feet 4. shortness of breath 5. breathing rate faster than 40 breaths per minute `
care for hyperventilation victims 1. calm and reassure teh vitim 2. encourage the person to breathe slowly, using the abdominal muscles: inhale through the nose, hole the full inhalation for several seconds, then exhale slowly
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease broad term for emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and related lung diseases -describes a disease that make it hard for a person to breathe because the normal flow of air into and out of the person's lungs is partially obstructed
signs of COPD similar to those of asthma -wheezing -coughing and shortness of breath -depend on a constant low level of artificially supplied oxygen to maintain breathing
Care for COPD -1. assist victim with physician-prescribed medications -2. place the victim in sitting position -3. encourage the victim to cough up any secretions -4. Encourage the victim to drink fluids -5. obtain immediate medical assistance
Fainting -a sudden, brief loss of responsiveness not associated with a head injury
syncope fainting can be precipitated by unpleasant email stimuli such as the sight of the blood or strong fear.
hypoglycemia -an abnormally increased concentration of sugar in the blood -reason for most fainting episodes
recognizing fainting -dizziness -eakness -seeing spots -visual blurring -nausea -pale skin -sweating
if a person appears about to faint -1. prevent person from falling -2. help them lie down and raise legs 6 to 12 inches -3. loosen tight clothing at the neck and waist -4. stay with victim until he/she recovers
if fainting has happened -1. monitor breathing -2. loosen tight clothing and belts -3. if the victim fell, check for injuries 4. raise the victim's legs 6 to 12 inches 5. have victim sit and give cool sweetened liquids -6. fresh air and a cold, wet cloth for face
fainting--seek medical care if -victim has ahd repeated attacks of unresponsiveness -does not quicly regain reponsiveness -loses responsiveness while sitting or laying down -faints for no apparent reason
DO NOT's--fainting -splash or pour water on victim's face -use smelling salts or ammonia inhalants -slap victim's face in an attempt to revive him or her -give the victim anything to drink until he or she has fully recovered and swallow
seizure -results from an abnormal stimulation of brain's cells causing uncontrollable muscle movements
thing that can lead to seizures.. -epilepsy -heatstroke -poisoning -electric shock -hypoglycemia -high fever in children -brain injury, tumor, or stroke -alcohol withdrawal, drug abuse, or overdose
what are the 4 types of seizures? -1. generalized tonic-clonic seizures -2. focal motor seizures -3. complex partial seizures -4. absence seizures
generalized tonic-clonic seizures -characterized by loss of consciousness muscle contraction, and sometimes tongue biting, loss of bladder control a, and mental confusion. -frightening to witness -followed my a period of coma or drowsiness
focal motor seizures causes one part of the body--such as one side of the face or an arm--to twitch
complex partial seizures -characterized by an altered personality state and are often preceded by dizziness or a peculiar metallic taste in the mouth -these seizures can cause sudden, unexplained attacks of rage; in others, automatic (involuntary)types of behavior
absence seizures usually occur in children and are rarely an emergency -the child suddenly stares off into space for a few seconds and then returns immediately to consciousness.
aura can consists of auditory or visual hallucinations, a peculiar taste in the mouth, or a painful sensation oin the abdomen -the victim loses consciousness and has contractions of the muscles of the extremities, trunk, and head
the following information is important to obtain from the seizure victim, the family, or bystanders does the victim have a history of seizures? take medication? taking medication properly? what did it look like? how long did it last? was it preceded by an aura a remote history of head injury abuse alcohol or drugs head ache, fever or stiff neck di
care for people who have seizures 1. cushion the V's head (remove hazardous items) -loosen any tight clothing -roll V on side -look 4 med tag -at the end, offer your help -call 9-1-1 if serious
status epilepticus tow or more seizures without an intervening period of consciousness
DO NOT's with seizures -give the V anything to eat or drink -restrain the victim -put anything between teeth -splash or pour any liquid on the victim's face -more the V to another place
diabetes a condition in which insulin is lacking or ineffective -insulin is needed to take sugar from the blood and carry it into the cells to be used.
type I people with type I diabetes require external insulin to allow sugar to pass from the blood into cells. when person is deprived of their insulin
type II -tend to be overweight -do not depend on external insulin to allow sugar into cells
gestational diabetes -occurs in pregnancies -ends after baby is born -type 2 diabetes can develop when mother gets older -occurs from the body's resistance to the action of insulin
Too much insulin and not enough sugar leads to low blood sugar and possibly insulin shock
hypoglycemia is very low blood sugar and can be caused by too much insulin, too little or delayed food intake, exercise, alcohol, or a combination of these factors
low blood sugar -develops very quickly -anger, bad temper -hunger -pale, sweaty skin
high blood sugar -develops gradually -thirst -frequent urination -fruity, sweet breath odor -warm and dry skin
what to do for low or high blood sugar? 1. if uncertain about high or low sugar lever, give sugar 2. repeat in 15 minutes if no improvement 3. call 911 if conditions do not improve
hyperglycemia -can lead to diabetic coma -occurs when the body has too much sugar in the blood -can be caused by inactivity, illness, stress, or a combination of these
gastrointestinal problems usually complain of pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or constipation
care for abdominal pain 1. give V only clear fluids 2. give V an antacid 3. warm abdomen 4. be prepared for V to vomit 5. keep victim in a comfortable position
nausea and vomiting -upset stomach, throwing up -often occur with conditions such as mild altitude sickness, motion sickness, brain injury, intestinal viruses, eating or drinking too much, and being emotionally upset
care for people with nausea and vomiting -give V small amounts of clear fluids -over carbs if victim is able to keep fluids down -have V rest until he/she can eat solid foods -lay V on side in case of vomiting
motion sickness -nausea -paleness of skin -cold sweats -vomiting -dizziness -headache -fatigue
care for people with motion sickness -should not do activities that distract them -try an antihistamine 1 hour before traveling
diarrhea is the frequent passage of loose, watery, or unformed stools and can be a symptom of intestinal infection, food poisoning, food allergy, or other ailments
care for diarrhea -clear liques -after give food such as soup a nd gelatin -BRAT diet, bananas,rice, applesauce, toast -bismuth
constipation is the passage of hard, dry stools and is rarely more than a passing discomfort in otherwise healthy people
care for people with constipation -have V eat more fiber -drinks plenty of fluids -encourage V to be active