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Anatomy Vocab Ch 3

Anatomy Vocab Ch 3 Marieb

cells made up of four elements, carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen. building block of all life
nucleus inner core of the cell
microvilli projections on the cell surface that increase the size for quick absorption
cytoplasm the cellular material outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane, the site of most cellular activity
cytosol largely water, is the fluid that holds the organelles in the cytosplasm; transports materials around the cell
inclusions chemical substances that are determined by the specific cell type
lysosomes contain powerful digestive enzymes, digest worn-out or nonusable cell structures and foreign substances that enter the cell
peroxisomes detoxify harmful or poisonous stubstances, including alcohol and formaldehyde, disarm dangerous free radicals
free radicals highly reactive chemicals that can scramble the structure of proteins and nucleic acids
golgi apparatus sacs close to the cell nucleus that direct cellular proteins; packaging of proteins for export from the cell
centrioles generate microtubules and direct formation of the miotic spindle
microtubules determine the overall shape of a cell and distribution of organelles
cytoskeleton network of protein structures acting as cell bones and muscles, internal framework that determines cell shape
plasma membrane fragile, transparent barrier that contains the cell contents and protects from the environment
chromatin DNA and protein that is scattered throughout the nucleus
chromosomes rodlike bodies fromed from chomatin, passed on during reproduction
generalized cell the basic parts common to all cells
nucleoli sites where ribosomes are assembled
organelle specialized to carry out a specific function for the cell as a whole; little organ
mitochondria sausage shaped organelles, major site of ATP synthesis, providing energy for all cellular activity
ribosomes site of protein synthesis in the cell, manufacture proteins
endoplasmic reticulum system of fluid-filled canals that coil and twist thru the cytoplasm, about half of a cells membranes. carry proteins from one part of the cell to another. rough is studded with ribosomes, smooth is not.
flagella a cell that propels itself, as in the sperm cell
cilia whiplike cellular extensions that move substances along the cell surface
microfilaments involved in cell motility and in producing changes in cell shape
fibroblast cell has rough ER and a large golgi apparatus; connect body parts
erythrocyte cell carries oxygen in the bloodstream (red blood cells)
epithelial cell packed in sheets, resists tearing when the epithelium is rubbed or pulled
skeletal and smooth muscle cells elongated and filled with contractile filaments; can shorten and move the bones or change the size of internal organs
fat cell produced by a large lipid droplet in cytoplasm
macrophage (or phagocyte) crawls through tissue to reach infection sites; lysosomes within the cell digest the infectious microorganisms
nerve cell receive messages and transmit to other structures in the body
oocyte the largest cell in the body, the egg cell, when fertilized becomes an embryo
sperm a flagella, cell is long and streamlined, built for swimming to the egg for fertilization
interstitial fluid continuously bathes the exterior of the cells
diffusion process by which molecules and ions move away from a region where they are more concentrated
osmosis diffusion of water through a membrane
filtration process by which water and solutes are forced through a membrance by fluid or pressure
exocytosis moves substances out of the cell
endocytosis moves substances into the cell
gland one or more cells that make and secrete a particular product
endocrine gland ductless gland, secretes hormones
exocrine gland secretes through the duct to the epithelial surface
phagocytosis the process of cell eating; white blood cells are phagocytes; scavenger cells that target and disgest bacteria and other foreign debris
pinocytosis process of cell gulping droplets of extracellular fluids containing dissolved proteins or fats
passive process is the substance soluble in the lipid portion of the membranne
cytokinesis division of cytoplasm
mitosis formation of two nuclei with the same genes; DNA replication precendes mitosis; four phases - prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
RNA 3 forms play a role in protein synthesis; transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA, messenger RNA
epithelial tissue the lining, covering, glandular tissue of the body
apical surface exposed to the body's exterior or to cavity of interal organs
basement membrane lowest surface of the epithelium, structureless material secreted by epithelial cells and connective tissue
simple epithelium one layer of moving cells
stratified epithelium more than one cell layer
simple squamous epithelium single layer of this squamous cells resting on basement membrane
simple cuboidal epithelium one layer of cuboidal cells resting on basement membrane, common in glands
simple columnar epithelium single layer of tall cells that fit closely together; goblet cells are common in this layer
pseudostratified columnar epithelium some cells are shorter than others and nuclei appear at differnt heights, gives false impression that it is stratified
stratified squamous epithelium most common, consists of several layers of cells; found in sites of abuse or friction
stratified cuboidal and stratified columnar fairly rare in the body, found mainly in the ducts of large glands
transitional epithelium highly modified, statified squamous epithelium, form lining of a few organs; have the ability to slide past one another and change their shape
connective tissue protect, support and bind together other body tissues
bone osseous tissue composed of bone cells sitting in cavities called lacunae, containing calcium and collagen fibers
cartilage flexible, found in a few places in the body
hyaline cartilage has abundant collagen fibers hidden by a rubbery matrix with glassy appearance; by the time baby is born, most of this cartilage is replaced by bone
fibrocartilage cushionlike disks between vertebrae of the spine
elastic cartilage found where structure with elasticity is desired
dense connective tissue collegen fibers are its main matrix element; tendons, ligaments
loose connective tissue softer and have more cells and fewer fibers than any connective tissue type except blood
aerolar tissue most widely distributed connective tissue, cushions and protects the body organs
adipose tissue fat, sometimes called signet ring cells because of the way the tissue looks; forms the subcutaneous tissue beneath the skin, insulating the skin
reticular connective tissue interwoven fibers forming the stroma or internal framework, supporting many free blood cells in lymphoid organs
vascular tissue blood; considered connective tissue because is consists of blood cells surrounded by nonliving fluid matrix of blood plasma
skeletal muscle packaged by connective tissue sheets into organs, are attached to the skeleton
smooth (visceral) muscle no striations are visible; individual cells are single nucleus and spindle-shaped; found in walls of hollow organs; contract more slowly than other two muscle types
cardiac muscle only in the heart; contracts the heart and propels blood through the vessels
nervous tissue neurons receiving and conducting eletrochemical impulses from one part of the body to another
regeneration tissue repair by replacement of destroyed tissue by the same type of cell
fibrosis tissue repair by dense connective tissue that forms scar tissue
granulation tissue delicate pink tissue composed largely of new capillaries that grow into the damaged area from undamaged blood vessels
neoplasm new growth, abnormal mass of cells
neoplasia abnormal cell mass that grows without control
atrophy decrease in size due to unuse
active process whether the proper carrier proteins are present in the membrane and in what amount
hyperplasia enlargement of body tissues or organs due to an increase in cell number
dysplasia abnormal development of tissue or organs
ciliated epithelium found in the respiratory system, prevents debris from entering the passageways; also in reproductive where it acts to move sex cells long the duct passageways
functional abilities able to metabolize, divide, grow, respond to stimuli, digest nutrients, move and excrete wastes
Created by: erosok



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