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Anatomy Vocab Ch2

Anatomy Vocab Ch2 Marieb

QuestionAnswer
matter can be seen, smelled and felt; is anything that occupies space and has mass`
energy does not take up space; can be measured only by it's affect on matter
kinetic energy constant movement
potential energy stored for future use
chemical energy stored in chemical substances (potential energy)
electrical energy results from the movement of charged particles
mechanical energy directly involved in moving matter
radiant energy travels in waves; the energy of the electromagnetic spectrum
elements substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
periodic table complete listing of all elements
atom building blocks; incapable of being divided
atomic symbol chemical shorthand term for each element
proton have positive charge
neutron has a neutral charge
electrons has a negative charge
plantary model mini solar system
orgibal model used to predict chemical behavior of atoms
atomic number is equal to the number of protons its atoms contain
atomic mass sum of the masses of all protons and neutrons contained in its nucleus
atomic weight average of the mass number of isotopes
isotope have the same number of protons and electrons but vary in the number of neutrons they contain
radioisotope the heavier isotopes of certain atoms, unstable and decompose to become more stable
radioactivity process of spntaneious atomic decay
molecules when two or more atoms combine chemically
compound two or more different atoms bind together forming a molecule
electron shell (energy level) the orbit or fixed regions of space around the nucleus
valence shell atoms outermost shell
ionic bond when electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another
ion when positively and negatively charges are not balanced
covalent bond a bond of covalent molecules
hydrogen bonds weak bond fromed when a hydrogen atom is bonded to another hydrogen atom (as in water)
synthesis reaction when two or more atoms or molecules combine to form a larger more complex molecule
decomposition reaction when a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules, atoms or ions
exchange reaction involve both synthesis and decompositions reactions
inorganic compounds lack carbon and tend to be small simple molecules
organic compounds contain carbon, very large covalently bonded molecules
inorganic compounds water, salt, acids and bases
salt ionic compound
water most abundant inorganic compound
electrolytes all salts, conduct an electrical current in a solution
acids (or protein donor) have a sour taste and can dissolve many metals
bases have a bitter taste, feel slippery and are proton acceptors
neutralized reaction an acid and a base interact
pH based on the number of protons in solution expressed in terms of moles per liter
buffer the acid based balance due to chemical regulation in body fluids
carbohydrate (organic compound) include sugars and starches
organic compounds carbohydrates, proteins, fats
monosaccharides simple sugars
glucose blood sugar
disaccharides double sugars, two simple sugars joined by dehydration synthesis
hydrolysis when a bond is broken and simple sugars are released
polysaccharides long branching chains of linked simple sugars
lipids fats; triglicerides, phospholipids and steriods
triglycerides
matter can be seen, smelled and felt; is anything that occupies space and has mass`
energy does not take up space; can be measured only by it's affect on matter
kinetic energy constant movement
potential energy stored for future use
chemical energy stored in chemical substances (potential energy)
electrical energy results from the movement of charged particles
mechanical energy directly involved in moving matter
radiant energy travels in waves; the energy of the electromagnetic spectrum
elements substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
periodic table complete listing of all elements
atom building blocks; incapable of being divided
atomic symbol chemical shorthand term for each element
proton have positive charge
neutron has a neutral charge
electrons has a negative charge
plantary model mini solar system
orgibal model used to predict chemical behavior of atoms
atomic number is equal to the number of protons its atoms contain
atomic mass sum of the masses of all protons and neutrons contained in its nucleus
atomic weight average of the mass number of isotopes
isotope have the same number of protons and electrons but vary in the number of neutrons they contain
radioisotope the heavier isotopes of certain atoms, unstable and decompose to become more stable
radioactivity process of spntaneious atomic decay
molecules when two or more atoms combine chemically
compound two or more different atoms bind together forming a molecule
electron shell (energy level) the orbit or fixed regions of space around the nucleus
valence shell atoms outermost shell
ionic bond when electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another
ion when positively and negatively charges are not balanced
covalent bond a bond of covalent molecules
hydrogen bonds weak bond fromed when a hydrogen atom is bonded to another hydrogen atom (as in water)
synthesis reaction when two or more atoms or molecules combine to form a larger more complex molecule
decomposition reaction when a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules, atoms or ions
exchange reaction involve both synthesis and decompositions reactions
inorganic compounds lack carbon and tend to be small simple molecules
organic compounds contain carbon, very large covalently bonded molecules
inorganic compounds water, salt, acids and bases
salt ionic compound
water most abundant inorganic compound
electrolytes all salts, conduct an electrical current in a solution
acids (or protein donor) have a sour taste and can dissolve many metals
bases have a bitter taste, feel slippery and are proton acceptors
neutralized reaction an acid and a base interact
pH based on the number of protons in solution expressed in terms of moles per liter
buffer the acid based balance due to chemical regulation in body fluids
carbohydrate (organic compound) include sugars and starches
organic compounds carbohydrates, proteins, fats
monosaccharides simple sugars
glucose blood sugar
disaccharides double sugars, two simple sugars joined by dehydration synthesis
hydrolysis when a bond is broken and simple sugars are released
polysaccharides long branching chains of linked simple sugars
lipids fats; triglicerides, phospholipids and steriods
triglycerides neutral fats composed of fatty acids and glycerol
trans fat oils that have been solidified
saturated fatty acid chains with a single covalent bond between carbon atoms
unsaturated (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated) fatty acids containing one or more double bond; plant lipid
omega3 fatty acids decrease the risk of heart disease and some inflammatory diseases
phospholipids similar to triglycerides, have two instead of three attached fatty acids
steriods flat molecules made of lydrogen and carbon atoms, fat soluable
cholesterol steriod molecule
proteins over 50% of the organic matter in the body and the most varied functions of the organic molecules
amino acids building blocks of proteins
fibrous proteins (structural proteins) important in binding structures together, provide strength in body tissues
globular proteins (functional proteins) spherical molecules do things (antibodies, hormones, enzymes)
enzymes hold molecules in the proper position for chemical interaction
nucleic acids make up the genes, providing the blueprint of life
nucleotides building blocks of the nucleic acids
deoxyribonucleic adic (DNA) the genetic material found whithin the cell nucleus
ribonucleic acid (RNA) carries out the orders for protein synthesis issued by the DNA
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) provides a form of chemical energy that is usable by all body cells
adenosine diphisphate (ADP) accumulates food fuels for the ATP
Created by: erosok
 

 



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