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A&P lab 3 (long bone structure & skull bones)

skeletal system supports, protects, provides levers, stores lipids & minerals (calcium), hematopoiesis
axial skeleton axis of skeleton - skull, vertebrae, ribs
appendicular skeleton appendages
bone structure compact or spongy, long, short, flat, irregular
diaphysis shaft
epiphysis end of long bone
epiphyseal plate growth plate
epiphyseal line remnants of epiphyseal plate
medullary cavity central cavity of diaphysis
endosteum lining of shaft
yellow marrow storage for adipose tissue
red marrow area involved in forming blood cells
periosteum covers bone surface
articular cartilage covers epiphyseal surface
spongy bone composed of small trabeculae and lots of open space
compact bone looks smooth & homogeneous
osteon Haversian system - bone unit
central canal Haversian Canal - runs parallel to long bone
lamellae circles around lacunae/osteons
osteocytes mature bone cells
lacunae chambers that hold osteocytes
canaliculi tiny canals
perforating canals Volkmann's Canals - perpendicular to shaft
frontal bone anterior portion of cranium
parietal bone postereolateral to frontal bone
sagittal suture midline articulation point of two parietal bones
coronal suture point of articulation of parietals with frontal bone
temporal bones inferior to parietal bone on lateral skull
squamous suture point of articulation of the temporal bone with the parietal bone
external auditory meatus canal leading to eardrum & middle ear
styloid process needlelike projection inferior to external auditory meatus
zygomatic process a bridgelike projection joining to zygomatic bone anteriorly
mastoid process rough projection inferior & posterior to external auditory meatus
mandibular fossa rounded depression on the inferior surface of zygomatic process, forms socket for mandibular condyle
jugular foramen opening medial to the styloid process through which internal jugular vein and cranial nerves
carotid canal opening medial to styloid process through which internal carotid artery passes into cranial cavity
internal acoustic meatus opening on posterior aspect of temporal bone allowing passage of cranial nerves
foramen lacerum a jagged opening between temporal bone and sphenoid process providing passage for many small nerves and for internal carotid artery to pass into middle cranial fossa
occpital bone most posterior bone of cranium
lambdoidal suture site of articulation of occipital bone & parietal bones
foramen magnum large opening in base of occipital, which allows the spinal cord to join with the brain
occipital condyles rounded projections lateral to the foramen magnum that articulate with first cervical vertebrae
hypoglossal canal opening medial & superior to the occipital condyle through which the hypoglossal nerve passes
sphenoid bone bat-shaped bone forming the anterior plateau of the middle cranial fossa across the width of the skull
superior orbital fissures jagged openings in orbits providing passage for cranial nerves to enter where serve eye
sella turcica a saddle-shaped region in the spenoid midline
optic canals (optic foramina) opening in the bases of the lesser wings through which the optic nerves enter the orbits to serve eyes
foramen rotundum opening lateral to the sella turcica that allows passage of a branch of cranial nerve
foramen ovale opening posterior to sella turcica that allows passage of branch of cranial nerve
foramen spinosum located in the base of the skull, on the sphenoid bone, situated lateral to foramen ovale in a posterior angle
ethmoid bone irregularly shaped bone anterior to the sphenoid
crista galli vertical projection providing a point of attachment for dura mater
cribriform plate bony plates lateral to the crista galli through which olfactory fibers pass to brain from nasal mucosa
mandible the lower jawbone
mandibular condyle articulation point of the mandible
coronoid process (in mandibular) jutting anterior portion of the ramus; site of muscle attachment
maxillae two bones fused in medial suture; form upper jawbone & parts of orbits
palatine processes form the anterior hard palate
palatine bones paired bones posterior to palatine process
zygomatic bones lateral to the maxilla; forms portion of face called cheekbone
lacrimal bones fingernail-sized bones forming a part of the medial orbit walls between maxilla & ethmoid
vomer blade-shaped bone in medial plane of nasal cavity
hyoid bone located in the throat above the larynx
fetal skull indentations between bones are fontanels
anterior fontanel soft spot on top
posterior fontanel soft spot on back
sphenoidal fontanel soft spot above jaws
mastoid fontanel soft spot in back of jaw
Created by: launawe



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