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A& P Chapter 4


AB Blood Universal Recipient
aneurysm localized weak spot or balloon like enlargement of the wall of an artery
antiarrhythmic medication adminstered to control irregularities of the heart beat
anticoagulant bllod thinner, keeps blood flowing to prevent formation of blood clots
antihypertensives medicine adminstered to lower blood pressure
aplastic anemia characterized by an absence of all formed blood elements by the failure of blood cell production in the bone marrow
arteries large blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
atria 2 upper chambers of the heart, the recieving chambers, all blood vessels coming into the heart enter here
basophils formed in the red blood marrow, the least common type of WBC, responsible for the symptoms of allergies and promotes inflammatory response
bicuspid valve mital valve, located between the left atrium & the left ventricle
capillary beds one epithelial cell in thickness, smallest blood vessels in body, exchanges nutrients, wastes, and gases and then leaves through the venules
conducting system sequence electrical impluses that are controlled by the sinoatrial (SA) node, atrioventricular (AV) node, bundle of HIS & the purkinje fibers.
congestive heart failure heart failure, chronic condition in which the heart is unable to pump out all the blood it recieves to meet the bodys needs
coronary arteries supply oxygen rich blod to the myocardium (heart)
CPR CardioPulmonary Resuscitation
embolus foreign object, such as a blood clot, quanity of gas or air, or a bit of tissueor turmor that is circulating in the blodd
endocardium consists of epithelial tissue, inner layer of heart
epicardium viseral pericardium, external layer of the heart & inner layer of the pericardium
erythrocytes red blood cells, transports oxygen by the hemoglobin (iron containing pigment)
fibrillation means fast, uncontrolled, rapid, random, ineffective heart beats
fibrinogen prothrombin, clotting proteins found in plasma, play important role in clot formation to control bleeding
1st heart sound lubb sound, caused by the tricuspid & mitral valves closing between the atria and the ventricles
formed elements erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes, hormones, nutrients, waste, cell & cell fragments that make up non-liquid parts of blood
function of the white blood cells involved in defending the body against bacteria
primary function of the cardiovascular system pump blood to all body tissues (transport materials to body)
heart hollow muscular organ located between the lungs, pump that furnishes the power to maintain the blood flow needed throughout the entire body
hemolytic anemia inadequate number of circulating red blood cells due to the premature destruction of red blood cells by the spleen
holter monitor portable electrocardiograph that is worn by an ambulatory patient to continously monitor the heart rates & rhythms over a 24 hr period
homocysteine amino acid normally found in the body
hyperlipidemia elevated levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoproteins
leukemia a cancer characterised by elevated number of WBC that don't function properly
megaloblastic anemia a blood disorder characterised by anemia in which the red blood cells are larger than normal and have a reduced capacity to carry hemoglobin
mitral valve bicuspid valve; located between the left atrium and the left ventricle
myocardial infarction a heart attack; closing off of one or more coronary arteries which causes tissue death
myocardium myocardial muscle; middle and thickest of the heart's three layers
P wave shows contraction of the atria on ECG tracing
pericardium pericardial sac; double-walled, membranous sac that encloses the heart
pernicious anemia a lack of vitamin B12, which is necessary for the formation of red blood cells
platelets thrombocytes; smallest formed elements of the blood, plays an important role in clotting; accumulates on injury and becomes sticky to prevent bleeding
pulse only felt and heard in the arteries; expanding and contracting of an artery due to force of blood
raynaud phenomenon peripheral arterial occlusion disease in which intermittent attacks are triggered by cold or stress; symptoms are due to constricted circulation and include pallor (paleness), cyanosis (blue color), and redness of the fingers and toes
reticulocytes immature red blood cells
right side of heart deals with oxygen-poor blood; consists of right atrium and right ventricle
secondary hypertension caused by a secondary medical condition such as a kidney disorder or a tumor on the adrenal glands
septicemia blood poisoning; systemic condition caused by the spread of micro-organisms and their toxins via the circulating blood
sickle cell anemia genetic or hereditary disorder that causes abnormal hemoglobin resulting in some red blood cells assuming an abnormal, sickle shape
sinoatrial node SA node; located in the posterior wall of the right atrium near the entrance of the superior vena cava; known as the natural pace-maker of the heart
T wave shows the relaxation of the ventricles on ECG tracing
thalassemia cooley's anemia; inherited blood disorder that causes mild or severe anemia due to producing less hemoglobin and fewer red blood cells than normal
thallium stress test uses radio pharmaceuticals; performed to evaluate how well blood flows through the coronary arteries of the heart muscle during exercise
thrombotic occlusion an attached blockage of an artery or a vein
thrombocytes platelets; smallest formed elements of the blood, plays an important role in clotting; accumulates on injury and becomes sticky to prevent bleeding
thrombus an attached blood clot to the interior wall of an artery or vein
tissue plasminogen activator thrombolytic that is administered to some patients who are having a heart attack or stroke; if administered within a few hours after symptoms begin, this medication can dissolve the damaging blood clots
tricuspid valve controls the opening between the right atrium and the right ventricle
universal donor o blood type
universal recipient ab blood type
upper chambers the receiving chambers of the heart; consist of the left and right atria
veins return blood from all body parts to the heart; contain one-way valves that enable to flow only toward the heart
ventricles the two lower chambers of the heart; the pumping or discharging chambers
ventricular fibrillation rapid, irregular, and useless contractions of the ventricles; instead of pumping strongly, the heart muscle quivers ineffectively which may result in death
apex pointed lower end of the heart
pulmonary semilunar valve located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
pulminary circulation the flood of blood only between the heart and lungs
pulminary veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs into the left atrium of the heart
systemic circulation flow of blood to all parts of the body except the lungs; oxygenated blood flows out of the left ventricle and into the arterial circulation
atrioventricular node AV node; located on the floor of the right atrium near the interatrial septum where it transmits the electrical impulses onward to the bundle of His
bundle of His group of fibers located in the intervenrticular septum that carry an electrical impule to ensure the sequence of the heart contractions; these electrical impulses travel onward to the left and right ventricals and the purkinje fibers
aorta largest blood vessel in the body
venules smaller veins that join together and form larger veins
venae cavae two largest veins in the body; return blood from the heart
superior vena cava transports blood from the upper portion of the body to the heart
inferior vena cava transports blood from the lower portion of the body to the heart
arterioles deliver blood to the capillaries
systole contraction of the heart
diastole relaxation of the heart
blood fluid tissue in the body that is composed of liquid plasma, erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes, hormones, nutrients, wastes, and cells and cell fragments which make up the non-liquid part of blood
plasma the liquid part of blood; contains nutrients, hormones and waste products;
serum plasma fluid after blood cells and the clotting proteins have been removed
leukocytes white blood cells; defends the body against diseases
neutrophils formed in the red bone marrow; the most common type of WBC
eosinophils formed in the red bone marrow and then migrates to the tissues throughout the body; destroy parasitic organisms and play a major role in alergic reactions
angina condition of episodes of severe chest pain caused by inadequate blood flow to the myocardium
arrythmia rapid, random, useless, and ineffective heartbeat; loss of the normal rythm of the heartbeat
atrial fibrillation normal rythmic contractions of the atria are replaced by rapid, irregular twitching of the heart wall
varicose veins abnormally swollen veins, usually occuring in the superficial veins of the legs
polycythemia increase in the number of red blood cells present in the blood due to excess production by the bone marrow
cholesterol fatty substance that travels through the blood and is found in all parts of the body
ACE inhibitor blocks action of kidney hormone renin that causes blood vessels to contract, resulting in hypertension; when enzyme is blocked, blood vessels are able to dilate, the heart muscle contracts, & this reduces BP; used 2 treat hypertension, heart failure, & MI
beta blocker reduces the workload of the heart by slowing the rate of the heart beat; used to lower BP, relieve angina, and treat heart failure
calcium channel blocker reduces contraction of muscles that squeeze blood vessels tight; used to treat hypertension, or to relieve or treat angina
diuretic stimulates the kidneys to increase the secretion of urine in order to help rid the body of excess sodium and water; treats hypertension and adema
asprin slightly reduces the ability of the blood to clot; reduces the risk of heart attack or stroke if taken daily
cholesterol lowering drugs combat hyperlipidemia by reducing the undesirable cholesterol levels in the blood
coumadin anticoagulant; used to prevent blood clots, certain types of heartbeat irregularities, or after heart attack or heart valve replacement surgery
digitalis brand names Digoxin and Lanixion; strengthens the contraction of the heart muscles, slows the heart rate, and helps to eliminate fluid from the body tissues; used to treat heart failure, certain types of arrhythmias and atrialfibrillation
thrombolytic medication a clot busting drug; dissolves or causes a thrombus to break up
vasoconstrictor causes blood vessels to narrow
vasodialator causes blood vessels to expand
nitroglycerin a vasodialator used to prevent or relieve pain from angina; increases the blood flow and oxygen supply to the heart; can be administered sublingually, transdermally, or orally as a spray
hemostasis to stop or control bleeding
Created by: Redd