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lichenification Thickening of the epidermis with accentuation of skin markings
erosion Slightly depressed area of skin with loss of epidermis (vs ulcer)
ulcer Necrosis of the dermis AND epidermis, occasionally subcutaneous tissue
Langerhans Cell LCs are dendritic cells derived from bone marrow myeloid lineage. They mediate immune processes; they are involved in Antigen presentation and phagocytosis
Merkel Cells Merkel cells are derived from epithelial stem cells not neural progenitors. It serves as a putative mechanoreceptor cells and is found in the epidermis
Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa Blister formation within the lamina lucida of the BMZ. 40 % lethality rate in some forms
Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa SUB-EPIDERMAL blister formation! Generalized blistering and extensive scar formation. Severe forms can cause webbing of limbs.
Congenital Melanocytic Nevus Giant hairy nevus-->Subdivided by small (<1.5cm) , medium (1.5-20cm), and large (>20cm) Clinical: Heavily pigmented, papillomatous surface, hair. Histo: may find clusters of melanocytes
Congenital Melanocytic Nevus (risk) Increased risk for melanomas. Risk increase with size of congenital nevus
Acquired Melanocytic Nevus Tan macules and can become darker papules. Size >1 cm suggests a congenital melanocytic nevus Prognosis: > 50 nevi have a 5 fold increase mealnoma risk
Dysplastic Nevi Criteria Always consider the ABCDE. A-Asymmetry B-Border: irregular border, leakage of pigment C-Color: mulitcolored, use dermoscopy D-Diameter: >6mm, pencil head eraser E-Evolution: evolving, changing
Dysplastic Nevi Criteria Melanocytic nevi with irregular border, larger in size, shape and color
Lentigines Harmless (benign) hyperplasia of melanocytes which is linear in its spread. lentigo complex is not caused by sun exposure, unlike ephiledes (freckles)
Ephiledes Freckles. Lentigines that is more irregular in nature that in lentigo simplex
Solar lentigo Increased basal layer pigment, no increase in melanocytes, No NESTS. Usually seen with old age. They are also caused by sun exposure but unlike Ephiledes don't involve a proliferation of melanocytes
Actinic Keratosis sharply bordered irregular erythematous patches and papules with adherent scale, caused by exposure to UVB
Seborrheic Keratosis Smooth, flat waxy plaques;elevated or dome shaped. They vary from tan to dark brown, even black
Lipoma Most common benign soft tissue tumor. Accumulation of mature fat cells Clinical-Soft, lobulated, freely mobile round or oval subcutaneous mass
Sebaceous Hyperplasia Clinical-rosette of yellow tiny papules just beneath the skin surface, central dell. Can look like BCC but no treatment is needed
Epidermal Inclusion Cyst (milia when ?) Cyst whose wall consists of epidermis and contents are keratin. It is slow growing, skin colored, firm cystic structures with a visible central punctum or pore Called milia when they occur on the face.
Dimple Sign Compress the lesion from the sides and the lesion becomes depressed in the center then it is DERMATOFIBROMA
Pyogenic Granuloma Like a cherry angioma, but this finding typically follows trauma and this is eruptive (hemangioma)
Koplik Spots Pathognomonic for measles. Tiny white lesions surrounded by and erythematous halo,
Dennie Morgan folds Folds seen by the lower palpebra that are related to Atopic dermatitis
Pityriasis alba can occur in kids with atopic dermatitis. It is hypopigmentation of the skin
Psoralens Absorb a lot of UVB radiation hence applied to psoriatic lesions to enhance phototherapy. It is a component of some plants that can cause a photosensitivity reaction b/c the property that makes it useful in treatment of psoriasis
nitisonine (orfadin) used to treat alkaptonuria along with high dose vit C ; functions by inhibiting enzyme that is responsible for producing homogentistic acid
Herpetic Whitlow Herpes on the fingers which is commonly seen in health care providers.
Ezcema Herpeticum A disseminated eruption of HSV which often has an underlying cause (eg atopic dermatitis) and can require hospitalization
condyloma accuminata Is a wart that is caused by HPV 6, 11, 16, or 18. Infection with his leads to constant asymptomatic shedding and poses a long-term risk for SCC
Created by: 16310914