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Block 5 Anat. Exam 2

Larynx and Lung Stuff

What is the space around the median epiglottal ligament that separates the tongue from the epiglottis? vallecula
What structure located behind the epiglottis is also known as the inlet of the larynx? vestibule
What is another name for the false vocal folds? vestibular fold
What is contained within the true vocal fold? vocal ligament and vocalis muscle
What is the space called between the false and true vocal folds? ventricle
Where is the infraglottic space located? inferior to the vocal folds
The hyoid bone is located at what cervical vertebra? C3
The cricoid cartilage is located at what cervical vertebra? C6
What is true about the cricoid cartilage? It is continous with the trachea
The thyroid cartilage is located at what cervical vertebra? C4-C5
What is true about the hyoid bone, cricoid cartilage, and thyroid cartilage? They all articulate with synovial joints
What are the only muscles to abduct the vocal ligaments? posterior cricoarytenoids
Most of the muscles of the larynx are innervated by what? the inferior laryngeal nerve (a branch of the recurrent laryngeal nerve of vagus)
The cricothyroid muscle is innervated by what? the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve of vagus)
What is a space that circumscribes the thyrocricoid ring of the larynx? piriform recess
Injury to what zones of the neck is associated with the highest morbidity and mortality? zones I and III
Most of the larynx is located in what zone of the neck? zone II
What is not true about the hyoid bone? it is part of the larynx
What is the fxn of the hyoid bone? it provides flexible support to the larynx and provides a base for the tongue
What is known as a hollow musculoligamentous structure within a cartilaginous framework capping the lower respiratory tract? larynx
Describe the location of the larynx it opens superiorly into the pharynx immediately posterior and slightly inferior to the tongue and oropharyngeal isthmus; it is continous below with the trachea
What are the 2 fxns of the larynx. sphincter and trumpet
What are the 3 unpaired cartilages of the larynx? cricoid, thyroid, epiglottis
What are the 3 paired cartilages of the larynx? arytenoid, corniculate, cuneiform
Besides cartilage, what other two things make up the larynx? a fibroelastic membrane and extrinisic and intrinsic muscles.
What cartilage is located immediately superior to the 1st tracheal ring? cricoid
What important landmark is important for intubation? vallecula
Where is the epiglottis located in relationship to the hyoid bone? it si projected above the hyoid bone
The two cartilages that form a cartilaginous skeleton supporting the larynx are what? thyoid and cricoid
What cartilage is not found in everyone and is shaped like a grain of wheat? triticeal cartilage
What is composed of 2 laminae united anteriorly to form the laryngeal prominence? thyroid cartilage
What muscles attach to the anterior arch of the cricoid cartilage? cricothyroid, cricopharyngeous
The ventral midline ridge of the cricoid cartilage attaches to what? the esophagus
Describe the limits of the glottis. it is the part of the larynx immediately below the epiglottis ending with the termination of the infraglossal fossa
Along the midline, the larynx is covered with what? cervical fascia
Laterally, the larynx is covered with what? sternohyoid and sternothyroid muscles
What muscles are located inferior to the larynx? upper constrictors of the esophagus
The conus elasticus is composed of what 3 ligaments? medial cricothyroid ligament, vocal ligament, lateral cricothyroid ligament
What is the opening b/t the vocal cords and the attached arytenoid cartilages? rima glottidis
What artery supplies the larynx above the vocal folds? the superior laryngeal artery, a branch of the thyroid artery
What artery supplies the larynx below the vocal folds? inferior laryngeal artery, a branch of the thyroid artery
What innervates the mucous membranes above the vocal folds? internal laryngeal nerve
What supplies the mucous membranes below the vocal folds? recurrent laryngeal nerve
The superior laryngeal nerve branches to what? the external and internal
What contains sensory fibers to the mucosa above the rima glottidis? the internal
What part of the trachea prevents it from collapsing during inspiration? hyaline cartilaginous partial rings
What type of epithelium lines the trachea? columnar ciliated epithelia
What are the limits of the lower respiratory tree? from the epiglottic cartilage down through the trachea
What is the carina? a bifurcation at the trachea
What does the trachea do at T5? it divides into the left and right principal or primary bronchi at the carina
Each primary bronchus branches into what? lobar bronchi
Where do the right and left primary bronchi enter the lungs? at the hila
What provides lymphatic drainage to the trachea? paratracheal nodes
What provides lymphatic drainage to the carina? inferior tracheobronchial nodes
What provides lympahtic drainage to the bronchi? bronchopulmonary nodes
Where is the isthmus of the thyroid located? at the 2-4 tracheal ring
What does the pretracheal fascia contain? inferior thyroid plexus (located inferior to thyroid isthmus)
Where is the left recurrent laryngeal nerve found? in the tracheoesophageal groove
What provides sympathetic innervation to the trachea? middle cervical ganglia
What provides parasympathetic innervation to the trachea? recurrent laryngeal and rt. vagus
What provides the blood supply to the first 2/3 of the trachea? inferior thyroid artery
What provides the blood supply to the last 1/3 of the trachea? bronchial artery
What provides lympathic drainage to trachea? deep cervical pretracheal, paratracheal nodes
What innervates the bronchi? pulmonary plexus
What provides blood supply to bronchi? bronchial artery
What provides lympathic drainage to bronchi? bronchial nodes
The superior and inferior thyroid arteries give rise to what arteries and form an anastomosis? superior and inferior laryngeal arteries
Describe what gives rise to the internal and external branches of the superior laryngeal nerve? Vagus-->superior laryngeal nerve-->internal and external branches
Describe what gives rise to the inferior laryngeal nerve? Vagus-->left recurrent laryngeal-->inferior laryngeal
Where is the left recurrent laryngeal nerve located with respect to the aorta? It passes inferior to the arch of the aorta
What are the two submucosal parts of the interior lining of the larynx called? quadrangular membrane, conus elasticus
What does the quadrangular membrane do? it connects the epiglottis with the arytenoid and thyroid cartilages
The quadrangular membrane is attached to what two cartilages? arytenoid and corniculate
The inferior free edge of the quadrangular membrane is thickened to form what? false vocal cord
What nerve passes inferior to the rt. subclavian artery? rt. recurrent laryngeal nerve
What nerve penetrates teh thyrohyoid muscle to provide sensation to the laryngeal mucous membrane and the superior surface of the vocal cords? internal laryngeal nerve
What nerve is the primary motor nerve of the larynx and also provides sensation to the infraglottic region? inferior laryngeal nerve
What muscles increase tension on the vocal ligaments when they tighten by rotating the thyroid cartilage inferior? cricothyroid muscles
What muscles relax the vocal ligaments by pulling the arytenoid cartilage anterior? thyroarytenoid
What muscles abduct the vocal ligaments by external rotation of the arytenoid cartilages? posterior cricoarytenoids
What muscles adduct the vocal ligaments by internal rotation of the arytenoid cartilages? lateral cricoarytenoid
what muscles adduct the vocal ligments by medial approximation of arytenoid cartilages? transverse cricoartytenoids
What do the parasympathetics do to bronchial smooth muscle? constrict with a secretomotor fxn
Are the bronchi and trachea innervated by the sympathetic nervous system directly? no
What plexi does the vagus contribute to? pulmonary and cardiac
The left vagus nerve descends posterior to what? common carotid artery
At the left arch of the aorta, the vagus gives rise to what? left recurrent laryngeal nerve
Where does the left vagus give branches to the left pulmonary plexus? inferior to the root of the left lung
The left vagus normally does not contribute to what? parasympathetic innervation of the heart
Right bronchial artery arises from what artery? 3rd right posterior intercostal artery
Left bronchial artery arises from what artery? directly from aorta
1/3 of the nutritional circulation of the lungs drains through what? the bronchial veins to the IVC
2/3 of the nutritional circulation of the lungs drains through what? enters the pulmonary veins to the left atrium
The dual circulation of the lungs forms what? a normal rt. to left shunt, which can cause a slight desaturation of blood entering the left atrium
The bronchial arteries supply what? lungs and visceral pleurae
The right bronchial vein drains to what? azygos
The left bronchial vein drains to what? hemiazyos
The parietal pleura is supplied and drained by what? intercostal arteries and veins
All lymph from teh lung leaves along the root of the lung and drains to what? inferior and superior tracheobronchial lymph nodes
The inferior tracheobrochial nodes drain to what side? right
What is the final destination of lymph drainage from the lungs? brochomediastinal trunks
Created by: bmensen



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