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nervous system ch8

what are the functions of the nervous system?. 1.regulate functioning of tissues, organs, &organ systems. 2. detect changes &feel sensations. 3.organize info for immediate use &store for future use.
what are the divisions of the nervous system?. central nervous system. peripheral nervous system: contains autonomic nervous system.
cns consists of what?. brain &spinal cord.
pns consists of what?. crainial nerves &spinal nerves.
describe neuron cell body. has a nucleus. located in cns or trunk. protected by bone. has one axon &dendrite.
axon does what?. carries impulses away from cell body.
dendrite does what?. carry impulses toward cell body.
schwann cells in pns form what?. myelin sheath.
oligodendrocytes in cns form what?. myelin sheath. phagocytize pathogens and help form blood brain barrier.
what is a synapse. space between axon of one neuron &dendrites or cell body.
what do neurotransmitters do?. carry impulses across synapse.
what do sensory neurons do?. (afferent) carry impulses from receptors to cns via different pathways or neurons. can come from internal organs- visceral sensory neurons.
what do motor neurons do?. (efferent) carry impulses from cns to effectors. can come from smooth muscles or glands-visceral motor neurons. can also come from skeletal muscles-somatic motor neurons.
what do interneurons do?. wholly within cns. intercept impulse bnefore gets to the brain, for quicker reaction.
what are the functions of the spinal cord?. 1.transmit impulses to and from brain. 2.integrate the spinal cord reflexes.
where is the spinal cord?. in the vertebral canal from foramen magnum to disc between 1st &2nd lumbar vertebrae.
what is the cross section?. internal gray matter. H shaped.
what do ascending tracts do?. carry impulses to brain.
what is in the central canal?. cerebrospinal fluid continued from brain ventricles.
define dorsal root ganglion. cell bodies of sensory neurons. spinal root.
ventral or motor root goes in what direction?. out. spinal root.
how many cervical pairs of spinal roots are there?. eight; goes to head, neck, shoulder, arm, &diaphragm.
how many thoracic pairs of spinal roots are there?. twelve; to trunk.
how many lumbar&sacral pairs of spinal roots are there?. five lumbar &five sacral; to hip, pelvic cavity,&leg. one small coccygeal pair.
define cauda equina. lumbar &sacral nerves extending below end of spinal cord.
where is the major peripheral nerve phrenic?. diaphragm.
where is the major peripheral nerve radial?. skin &muscles of posterior arm, forearm &hand, thumb &1st two fingers.
where is the major peripheral nerve median?. skin &muscles of anterior arm, forearm, hand.
where is the major peripheral nerve ulnar?. skin &muscles of medial arm, forearm, hand; little finger &ring finger.
where is the major peripheral nerve intercostal?. intercostal muscles (ribs), abdominal muscles; skin of trunk.
where is the major peripheral nerve femoral?. skin &muscles of anterior thigh, medial leg, &foot.
where is the major peripheral nerve sciatic?. skin &muscles of posterior thigh, leg &foot.
pathway of nerve impulses during a reflex. 1.receptors. 2.sensory neurons. 3.cns with one or more synapses. 4.motor neurons. 5.effector processing.
define ventricles. four cavities that form verebrospinal fluid; can enlarge with swelling.
functions of the medulla. regulates heart rate, breathing, &bp; aso coughing, vomiting, sneezing, swallowing. (medulla &pons are at the top of spinal cord)
function of pons. respiratory centers work with medulla for changes in breathing.
the midbrain contains the centers for what?. visual, auditory, &righting (equilibrium) reflexes. connects left &right brain.
funcitons of the cerebellum. regulates coordination, also muscle tone &equilbrium, texture &weight sensations.
function of hypothalamus. produces adh for kidney reabsorption of water. produces oxytocin for labor. regulates body temp. food intake. &ans function. biological clock. emotional responses. ghrh. regulates the secretion of anterior &posterior pituitary gland.
function of the thalamus. groups sensory impulses before relaying to cerebrum. contributes to alertness, awareness &memory. involves all senses but smell.
function of cerebrum. largest part of the brain. two hemipsheres that communicate via the corpus callosum. cerebral cortex has gray matter. white matter is nerve tracts.
lobes in the cerebrum. frontal lobe:movement &skills. parietal lobe:skin sensation &muscle sense, taste. temporal lobe:hearing &smell. occipital lobe:vision, relationships. association areas:in all lobes, abstract thinking, reasoning, learning, memory, personality.
define neural plasticity. ability of brain to adapt to changing needs.
define hippocampus. collect info from many areasof verebral cortex &help remember names &events.
define basil ganglia. gray matter in cerebral hemispheres. voluntary movement, muscle tone, coordination.
define corpus callosum. communicative connection between the 2hemispheres of cerebrum.
cerebrospinal fluid function. nourishes cns, removes waste products, &acts as a shock absorber. constantly formed in subarachnoid space by choroid plexuses from blood plasma.
three layers of meninges connective tissue. dura mater: outer. arachnoid membrane: middle. pia mater: inner.
function of cranial nerve olfactory. smell.
function of cranial nerve optic. sight.
function of cranial nerve oculomotor. eyeball movement. pupil constriction.
function of cranial nerve trochlear. eyeball movement.
function of cranial nerve trigeminal. feeling in face, scalp &teeth. muscle contraction chewing.
function of cranial nerve abducens. also eyeball movement.
function of cranial nerve facial. taste. facial muscle contraction. saliva secretion.
function of cranial nerve acoustic (vestibulocochlear). hearing, equilibrium.
function of cranial nerve glossopharyngeal. taste. cardiac senses, respiratory &bp reflexes. pharynx contraction.
function of cranial nerve vagus. longest of all cranial nerves. cardiac senses. respiratory &bp reflexes. speaking.
function of crainal nerve accessory. neck &shoulder muscles. speaking.
function of crainal nerve hypoglossal. tounge movement.
Created by: 1181469845



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