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Anatomy Study of the structure of the body
physiology The study of the function of the body
What are the 7 levels of structural complexity? (1) organism (2)organ system (3) organ (4) tissue (5) cell (6) organelle (7) molecule
Molecule group of atoms
Organelles Specialized structures that perform specific metabolic functions within cells
Cell The basic biological until of living organisms
Tissue Group of similar cells that perform a specific function
Organ Two or more tissues specialized to perform a specific function
Organ Systems Two or more organs that work together to perform a specific function
Organisms Everything added up to one
What is the anatomical position? (1) Standing Erect (2) Arms at the sides (3) Palms forward (4) Feet close together
Superior Nearer to or at the top
Inferior Nearer to or at the bottom
Anterior Near or at the front (Ventral)
Posterior Near or at the bottom
Medial Toward the median Line
Lateral Away from the median line
Ipsilateral Same Side
Proximal Near the beginning of; close to the point of attachment
Distal Near the end of; or away from the point of attachment
Superficial At the surface (scrape knee)
Deep Further below the surface
Plane An imaginary flat surface
Sagittal Plane separates left from right
Coronal (frontal) Plane Separates arterior from posterior
Transverse Plane Separates superior from inferior
What is essential for life? Homeostasis
What is homeostatsis Relatively steady internal state
homestatsis is maintained through.... negative feedback mechanisms
We need to preserve _________in order stay healthy Homeostasis
Homeostasis alternating stimus condition altered <------ control centre Negative feedback effectors <--------
What are the three main parts of cell Plasma Membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus
Plasma membrane (1)cell boundary (2)selectively permeable (3)Regulates movement of substances in to and out of cell
Cytoplasm Region between nucleus and plasma membrane
What does cytoplasm consists of (1)Organelles (2)Cytosol (3)Cytoskeleton
Ribsomes Protein synthesis
Smooth ER steroid synthesis
Golgi Apparatus Packaging secretion; membrane growth
Mitochondria powerhouse
Lysosomes enzyme container
Nucleaus Controls metabolic activity reproduction (contains DNA)
Cytoskeleton Microtublues, microfilaments
Transport processes maybe active or passive
Passive transport Processes (1)No Metabolic energy required (2)substances move along their concentration gradients (3)driven by diffusion pressure
Simple Diffusion Movement of molecules
Osmosis Movement of water molecules through a selectively permable membrane from area of higher water concentration to an area of lower concentration
Facilitated Diffusion Molecules diffuses through membrane only we attached to carrier problem
Filtration Small particles are separated from larger ones by passage through filtering membrane
Carrier Molecules move solute through membranes against concentration gradient
Edocytosis Extracellular substance engulfed by plasa membrane
Phagocytosis Endocytosis of solid particles "cell eating"
Pinocytosis Endocytosis of liquid particles (cell drinking)
Exocytosis Intracellular material expelled by endocytosis in reverse
Cell Reproduction The nucleus controls when and how the cell reproduces either mitosis or meiosis
Mitosis Process by which most body cells reproduce
Original Cell Two daughter cells each identical to the parent cell
Meiosis Occurs only during production of sperm and ova
Primary tissue types (1) Empithelial (2)Connective (3)Muscle (4)Nerve
Epithlial tissue Covering and lining tissue (forming glands, stomach lining)
Connective Tissue Binds other tissues together (the glue that holds everything together). It is made up of blood, bones, cartilage and fat. It also fills in space
Muscle Tissue Shorten to produce movement
Nervous System Conducts impulses
Mitosis in tissue types... Occurs most rapidly in epithelial tissue. In adult connective tissue rate of mitosis varies. In general, adult nervous and muscle tissue does not undergo mitosis varies. in general adult nervous and muscle tissue does not undergo mitosis
Functions of epithlial (1) Protects (2) Synthesizes (3) Secretes (4) Absorbs
Characteristics of Epithlial (1) Cells tightly packed (2) on apical (unattached) surface, one basal surface attached to basement membrane (3)Cells reproduce rapidly (4) not vascularized
Squamous Cell shape Cell height, thickness less than width (flattened cells)
Cuboidal Cell Shape Cell height/thickness roughly equal to width
Columar Cell Shape Cell height greater then width
Simple Cells sitting on basement membranes. The are only one cell thick
Stratified Sitting on other cells (dont touch basement membrane). more than one layer; only the deepest layer attached to the basement membrane.
Pseudostratified Every single cell is attached to basement membrane.
Simple Squamous Epithelium Single layer of thin/flat cells, for thin structures such as walls of the capillaries
Stratified Squamous Epithlium Several Cells thick, surface cells flattened. Forms durable surfaces where friction occurs (outer layer of skin ie. Lining of mouth and vagina
Simple cuboidal epithelium single layer of cubodal cells. forms walls of many glands and ducts.
Simple columnar Single layer of tall cells, line stomach, intestines and digestive glands
Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Cells are taller than wide, all cells lie on basement membrane but not all reach the surface, cilia helps move materials, forms lining of respiratory passages.
Created by: brianneforbes



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