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LOM Book Chapter 7

Language of Medicine Chapter 7 - Created by

abscess Collection of pus.
acetone Ketone body produced in abnormal amounts in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, when there is excessive fat breakdown in cells.
albuminuria Protein in the urine.
antidiuretic hormone Pituitary gland hormone that normally stimulates the kidney to decrease production of urine, preventing excess loss of water. Also called vasopressin.
anuria Suppression of urine formation by the kidney.
arteriole Small artery.
azotemia Excess of nitrogenous waste products in the blood; uremia.
bacteriuria Bacteria in the urine.
bowman capsule Enclosing structure surrounding each glomerulus (ball of capillaries) in the outer section (cortex) of the kidney.
caliceal Pertaining to a calyx (cup-shaped collecting chamber in the central portion of the kidney).
caliectasis Dilation or widening of the calyx. This occurs when urine is backed up in the kidney as in hydronephrosis.
calyx; calyces Cup-shaped collecting region in the renal pelvis (central section of the kidney).
catheter Tube for injecting or removing fluids.
cortex Outer region of an organ; renal cortex is the outer region of the kidney.
cortical Pertaining to the cortex (outer region of an organ).
creatinine Nitrogen-containing waste product of muscle metabolism; excreted by the kidney in urine.
creatinine clearance test Measures the rate at which creatinine is cleared from the blood by the kidney.
cystectomy Excision (removal) of the urinary bladder.
cystitis Inflammation of the urinary bladder.
cystoscopy Visual (endoscopic) examination of the urinary bladder.
cystostomy New opening of the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.
diabetes insipidus Abnormal condition of inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the pituitary gland. Patients experience polyuria (excessive urination) and polydipsia (excessive thirst).
diabetes mellitus Abnormal condition of no insulin or inadequate insulin section from the pancreas. This leads to hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and glycosuria (sugar in the urine).
diuresis Increased excretion of urine by the kidneys. A diuretic is an agent that increases diuresis, such as tea, coffee, or water.
dysuria Painful urination.
edema Abnormal accumulation of fluid in tissue spaces.
electrolyte Chemical element that carries an electrical charge when dissolved in water. Examples are sodium (Na⁺), potassium (K⁺), and chloride (Cl⁻). ***Note the (Na) and the (K) should have a + sign in the upper right corner!***
enuresis Bedwetting; literally, “in urine.”
erythropoietin Hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate red blood cell production by bone marrow.
essential hypertension High blood pressure due to no apparent cause.
filtration Process by which some substances, but not all, pass through a filter or other type of material.
glomerular Pertaining to a glomerulus.
glomerulonephritis Inflammation of glomeruli in the kidney.
glomerulus; glomeruli Tiny ball of capillaries (microscopic blood vessels) in the cortex of the kidney. As blood flows through each glomerulus, waste materials and other substances are filtered from the bloodstream.
glycosuria Sugar in the urine.
hematuria Blood in the urine.
hemodialysis Removal of wastes materials from the blood in patients whose kidneys have stopped functioning. Blood leaves the body and circulates through a machine that removes wastes before sending the blood back into the body through a vein.
hilum Depression or hollow in the surface of an organ, such as the kidney and lung. It is the area where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave the organ.
hydronephrosis Abnormal condition of excess backup of fluid (urine) in the kidney.
interstitial nephritis Inflammation of the tissue in the kidney that lies between (interstitium) the nephrons (functional units).
ketonuria Presence of ketones in the urine. Common in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, but can occur in any time the body begins to bread down fatty tissue to provide energy as in starvation.
ketosis Accumulation of large quantities of ketone bodies (acetones) in the blood; ketoacidosis.
kidney One of two bean-shaped organs behind the abdominal cavity on either side of the backbone in the lumbar region.
lithotripsy Process of using high-energy sound waves to crush a stone within the kidney or ureter.
meatal stenosis Narrowing of the meatus (opening) leading from the urethra to the outside of the body.
meatotomy Incision of a meatus in order to enlarge it. The urinary meatus is the opening of the urethra to the outside of the body.
meatus An opening or passageway. The urinary meatus is the opening of the urethra to the outside of the body and the auditory meatus is the opening of the ear to the outside of the body.
medulla Inner region of an organ.
medullary Pertaining to the medulla or an organ.
micturition Urination; voiding.
nephrolithiasis Abnormal condition of kidney stones.
nephrolithotomy Incision of the kidney to remove a stone.
nephron Functional unit of the kidney, consisting of a glomerulus, renal tubule, and collecting tubule.
nephropathy Disease or abnormality of the kidney.
nephroptosis Prolapse of a kidney; floating or wandering kidney.
nephrosclerosis Hardening of arteries and arterioles in the kidney.
nephrostomy Opening of the kidney to the outside of the body.
nephrotic syndrome Group of symptoms that occur due to loss of protein in the urine. Symptoms include edema (swelling of tissues), hypoalbuminemia loss of protein from the blood), proteinuria, and susceptibility to infection. This condition is also known as nephrosis.
nitrogenous waste Substance containing nitrogen and excreted in urine; examples are urea, creatinine, and uric acid.
nocturia Urinary frequency at night.
oliguria Scanty urination.
paranephric Pertaining to beside or near kidney.
peritoneal dialysis Separation of nitrogenous wastes from the bloodstream by introducing fluid into the peritoneal cavity. Wastes then leave the bloodstream and enter the fluid, which is drained through an abdominal catheter.
perivesical Pertaining to surrounding the urinary bladder.
phenylketonuria Excess of phenylketones in the urine; diagnosed by a PKU test at birth.
polycystic kidney disease Kidneys are filled with cysts that prevent normal kidney function.
polydipsia Excessive thirst.
polyuria Excessive urination.
potassium Chemical element that forms salts with other minerals such as calcium and is vital for bodily processes. When dissolved in water, it is an electrolyte whose balance is regulated by the kidney.
pyelogram X-ray record of the kidney (renal pelvis) after injection of contrast material.
pyelolithotomy Incision to remove a stone from the renal pelvis of the kidney.
pyelonephritis Inflammation of the renal pelvis and kidney; caused by bacterial infection.
pyuria Pus in the urine; sign of urinary tract infection (UTI).
reabsorption Process in kidney by which the renal tubules return materials necessary to the body back into the bloodstream.
renal angiography X-ray record of blood vessels of the kidney after injecting contrast material.
renal angioplasty Surgical repair of blood vessels in the kidney. Narrowed areas of renal arteries are dilated using an inflatable balloon attached to a catheter.
renal artery Blood vessel that carries blood to the kidney.
renal calculi Kidney stones.
renal cell carcinoma Malignant tumor of the kidney in an adult.
renal colic Severe pain resulting from stones (calculi) in a ureter or in the kidney (renal pelvis).
renal failure Failure of the kidneys to produce and excrete urine.
renal hypertension High blood pressure resulting from kidney disease.
renal ischemia Condition in which blood is held back from the kidney, often by blockage of renal arteries and arterioles.
renal pelvis Central collecting chamber of the kidney.
renal transplantation Surgical transfer of a kidney from a donor to a recipient.
renal tubule Microscopic tube in the kidney where urine is formed after filtration.
renal vein Blood vessel that carries blood away from the kidney and back toward the heart.
renin A substance (enzyme) synthesized, stored and secreted by the kidney to raise blood pressure. It causes narrowing (constriction) of blood vessels.
retrograde pyelogram X-ray record of the kidney, ureters, and urinary bladder after injection of contrast material through a urinary catheter into the ureters.
secondary hypertension High blood pressure caused by kidney disease or by other disorders.
sodium Chemical element necessary for cellular functioning. As an electrolyte, its blood and urine levels are regulated by the kidney.
stricture Narrowing of tubular structure in the body.
trigone Triangular area in the urinary bladder where the ureters enter and the urethra exits.
trigonitis Inflammation of the trigone of the urinary bladder.
urea Major nitrogenous waste material in urine.
uremia Excessive amount of urea and other nitrogenous wastes in the blood.
ureter Tube leading from each kidney to the urinary bladder.
ureteroileostomy New opening of the ureters to an isolated portion of the ileum that has been removed from its normal location and connected to the outside of the body. It serves as a passageway for urine to leave the body when the urinary bladder is not functioning.
ureterolithotomy Incision of a ureter for removal of a stone.
urethra Tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.
urethral stricture Narrowing of the urethra.
urethritis Inflammation of the urethra.
urethroplasty Surgical repair of the urethra.
uric acid Nitrogenous waste formed when proteins are used in cells. It is excreted by the kidneys in urine.
urinalysis Series of tests to evaluate the composition of urine. It includes tests to determine color, appearance, sugar, bacteria, and protein in blood.
urinary bladder Hollow container with muscular walls that holds and stores urine until it is discharged from the body.
urinary catherization Passage of a catheter into the urinary bladder for temporary or permanent drainage of urine.
urinary incontinence Involuntary passage of urine.
urinary retention Inability to pass urine, which is held back in the urinary bladder.
urination Urination is the process of expelling urine; micturition; voiding.
vesicoureteral reflux Backflow of urine from the urinary bladder to the ureters.
voiding Urination.
voiding cystourethrogram X-ray record of the urinary bladder and urethra taken while a patient is urinating and after contrast material is injected retrograde through the urethra.
Wilms tumor Malignant neoplasm of the kidney that occurs in childhood.
Created by: mtathome
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