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LOM Book Chapter 5

Language of Medicine Chapter 5 - Created by

absorption Passage of materials through the walls of the small intestines and into the bloodstream.
achalasia Failure of the lower esophageal sphincter muscle (LES) to relax; dilation of the esophagus above the stenosis (narrowing) and loss of peristalsis occur.
achlorhydria Absence of hydrochloric acid from the gastric juice.
amino acids The chief constituents of proteins, there are 20 amino acids that contribute to protein syntheses. Amino acids are formed when large protein molecules are digested.
amylase An enzyme that digests (breaks down) starches into simpler substances (such as sugars).
anal fistula Abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus.
anastomosis A surgical procedure that creates a new opening between two previously unconnected tubular organs or parts of the same organ.
anorexia Lack of appetite.
anus The opening of the rectum to the outside of the body.
aphthous stomatitis Inflammation of the mouth with small, painful ulcers; canker sores.
appendectomy Removal or excision of the appendix.
appendicitis Inflammation of the appendix.
appendix Small, slender sac near the beginning of the colon in the RLQ of the abdomen.
ascites Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen.
bile Yellow or orange fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It travels from the gallbladder into the small intestines to help digest fats.
biliary Pertaining to bile or bile ducts. Bile ducts empty bile into the small intestine (duodenum).
bilirubin A yellow-orange pigment found in bile.
borborygmus Rumbling or gurgling noise produced by hyperactive movement of gas, fluid, or both in the gastrointestinal tract.
bowel Intestine. The large bowel is called the colon and the small bowel is the small intestine.
buccal mucosa Mucous membrane lining the cheek.
canine teeth Four, pointed dog-like (canine means dog) teeth. Each canine or cusped tooth is third from the midline of the jaw.
cecal Pertaining to the cecum, which is the first part of the large intestine (colon).
cecum First part of the large intestine (colon).
celiac Pertaining to the abdomen.
cheilitis Inflammation of the lip.
cholecystectomy Excision or removal of the gallbladder.
choledochojejunostomy Surgical anastomosis (create a new opening) between the common bile duct and the jejunum.
choledocholithiasis Abnormal condition of stones in the common bile duct.
choledochotomy Incision of the common bile duct.
cholelithiasis Abnormal condition of gallstones.
cirrhosis Chronic, degenerative disease of the liver.
colon Large intestine (bowel).
colonic Pertaining to the colon.
colonic polyposis Benign growths protrude from the mucous membrane lining the colon.
colonoscopy Visual endoscopic examination of the colon.
colorectal cancer Adenocarcinoma of the colon or the rectum or both
colostomy New opening of the colon through the abdominal wall to the outside of the body.
common bile duct Tube carrying bile from the gallbladder and liver into the first part of the small intestine.
constipation Difficulty in passing (eliminating) feces (stool).
Crohn disease Inflammatory bowel disease marked by diarrhea, pain, fever, weakness and weight loss.
defecation Eliminating of wastes and undigested foods through the rectum.
deglutition Swallowing.
dental caries Tooth decay.
dentibuccal Pertaining to the cheek and teeth.
dentin The chief substance of teeth; surrounding the pulp and covered by enamel of the crown.
diarrhea Frequent passage of loose, watery stools.
digestion The process of breaking down complex foods into simpler substances that can be absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the small intestine.
diverticula Small, pouch-like herniations through the muscular wall of a tubular organ such as the colon.
diverticulitis Inflammation of the diverticula; abdominal pain and rectal bleeding are symptoms.
diverticulosis Abnormal condition of diverticula without inflammation.
duodenal Pertaining to the duodenum.
duodenum The first part of the small intestine.
dysentery Painful intestines; marked by inflammation and infection, especially of the colon with abdominal pain and diarrhea.
dysphagia Difficulty in swallowing.
elimination Discharge from the body of indigestible materials or wastes.
emulsification Breakdown of large fat globules into smaller, digestible particles.
enamel White, compact and hard substance covering the substance (dentin( of the crown of the tooth.
endodontist A dentist specializing in the inner parts of the tooth.
enterocolitis Inflammation of the small intestine and colon.
enterocolostomy New surgical connection between parts of the small intestine and colon; anastomosis.
enzyme Protein that speeds up the rate of the biochemical reaction. The suffix –ase means enzyme.
eructation Gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth.
esophageal Pertaining to the esophagus.
esophageal varices Swollen, twisted veins at the lower end of esophagus.
esophagus Tube that carries food from the pharynx (throat) to the stomach.
etiology Study of the cause of disease.
facial Pertaining to the face.
fatty acids Substances that are produced when fats are digested. They combine with glycerol to form fat.
feces Solid wastes; stools.
flatus Gas expelled through the anus.
gallbladder Small sac lying below the liver, in which bile is stored.
gastric carcinoma Malignant tumor of the stomach; stomach cancer.
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Backflow of solids and fluid from the stomach to the mouth against its normal direction of movement.
gastrointestinal tract The tubular system related to the stomach and intestines beginning with the mouth and ending with the anus.
gastrojejunostomy New surgical opening between the stomach and the jejunum; an anastomosis. The procedure is part of the gastric bypass surgery.
gastrostomy New opening of the stomach through the abdominal wall to the outside of the body.
gingivitis Inflammation of gums.
gluconeogenesis Process of producing new sugar from fats and proteins; occurs mainly in the liver.
glucose Simple sugar necessary as a source of energy for body cells.
glycogen Storage form of glucose (sugar); it produces glucose when it is broken down (glycogenolysis) in liver cells.
glycogenolysis Breakdown of glycogen to release sugar.
hematochezia Passage of bright red blood from the rectum.
hemorrhoids Swollen, twisted varicose veins in the rectal region.
hepatoma Tumor (malignant) of liver cells; hepatocellular carcinoma.
hepatomegaly Enlargement of the liver.
herpetic stomatitis Inflammation of the mouth caused by infection with the herpes virus. Painful, fluid-filled blisters are produced by the infection and known as cold sores or fever blisters.
hiatal hernia Protrusion of the upper portion of the stomach upward through the diaphragm.
hydrochloric acid Strong acid, present in a dilute form in the stomach; aids digestion.
hyperbilirubinemia High levels of bilirubin (yellow/orange pigment) in the bloodstream; jaundice.
hyperglycemia High levels of sugar in the bloodstream; diabetes mellitus.
hypoglossal Pertaining to under the tongue.
icterus Jaundice; yellow-orange coloration of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood.
idiopathic Pertaining to unknown cause of disease.
ileitis Inflammation of the ileum (third part of the small intestine).
ileocecal sphincter Ring of muscles that are between the ileum and the cecum (first part of the large intestine).
ileostomy Surgical formation of an artificial opening from the ileum to the outside of the body through the abdominal wall.
ileum Third (and final) portion of the small intestine.
ileus Failure of peristalsis with obstruction of the intestines.
incisor One of the four front teeth on either jaw.
inflammatory bowel disease Severe inflammation of the small and large intestine (colon); examples are Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis.
inguinal hernia A small loop of the bowel protrudes through a weakened lower abdominal muscle.
insulin Hormone secreted by specialized cells in the pancreas. Insulin facilitates transport of sugar from the blood into the body cells.
intussusception One portion of the intestine slips into an adjoining part; telescoping of the intestines.
irritable bowel syndrome Group of gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, and bloating) associated with stress and tension.
jaundice A symptom of illness marked by yellow-orange discoloration of the skin and whites of the eyes resulting from excess bilirubin in the blood.
jejunum Second part of the small intestine.
labial Pertaining to the lip.
laparoscopy Laparoscopy visual (endoscopic) examination of the abdomen and abdominal organs through small abdominal incisions.
lipase Enzyme (-ase) that digests fats; produced by cells in the pancreas and secreted into the duodenum.
lithogenesis Formation of stone (calculi).
liver Large, reddish-brown organ in the right upper quadrant (RUQ) of the abdomen. It secretes bile, forms blood proteins and metabolizes fats, proteins, and sugars.
lower esophageal sphincter Ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach.
mastication Process of chewing.
melena Black, tarry stools; feces containing blood.
mesentery Membrane that holds the intestine together; a fold of the peritoneum attaching the small intestine to the dorsal (back) body wall.
molar teeth Sixth, seventh, and eighth teeth from the middle or either side of the dental arch. The most posterior molar is known as the wisdom tooth.
nausea Unpleasant sensation in the stomach with a tendency to vomit.
odynophagia Painful swallowing.
oral Pertaining to the mouth.
oral leukoplakia White plaques or patches on the mucous membranes of the mouth.
orthodontist Dentist specializing in straightening teeth.
palate Roof of the mouth; hard palate is the front bony portion and the soft palate is the posterior fleshy part near the throat.
palatoplasty Surgical repair of the palate.
pancreas Gland under and behind the stomach; produces enzymes to digest foods and the hormone insulin to transport sugar to cells.
pancreatitis Inflammation of the pancreas.
papillae Small elevations on the surface of the tongue containing taste buds.
parenteral Pertaining to by some route other than through the gastrointestinal tract, as by intravenous injection.
parotid gland Salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear.
peptic ulcer Open sore or lesion of the mucous membrane of the stomach and duodenum.
perianal Pertaining to surrounding the anus.
periodontal disease Inflammation and degeneration of gums, teeth, and surrounding bone.
periodontist Dentist specializing in treating the gums.
peristalsis Rhythm-like contractions of the tubes of the gastrointestinal tract and other tubular structures.
pharyngeal Pertaining to the pharynx or throat.
pharynx Throat; the common passageway for food from the mouth.
portal vein Large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines.
postprandial After meals.
premolar teeth Either of the two teeth on each side of each jaw, just behind the canine teeth and in front of the molars.
proctologist Specialist in the study of the anus and the rectum.
protease Enzyme that digests protein.
pulp Soft tissue with a tooth containing nerves and blood vessels.
pyloric sphincter Ring of muscles that surround the opening of the stomach to the duodenum.
pyloroplasty Surgical repair of the pyloric sphincter.
pylorus Distal region of the stomach near the duodenum.
rectocele Hernia of the wall of the rectum.
rectum Final section of the colon.
rugae Folds or creases in the mucous membrane of the stomach or the hard palate of the mouth.
saliva Enzyme-containing digestive juice secreted by salivary glands.
salivary glands Three pairs of exocrine glands secreting saliva into the mouth; parotid glands, sublingual glands, and submandibular glands.
sialadenitis Inflammation of the salivary gland.
sialolith Salivary gland stone; lodged in a salivary gland or duct.
sigmoid colon Distal, lower end of the colon.
sigmoidoscopy Visual endoscopic examination of the sigmoid colon.
sphincter Circular ring of muscle that surrounds an opening or orifice.
steatorrhea Discharge of fat in the feces due to improper digestion and malabsorption of fat.
stomatitis Inflammation of the mouth.
sublingual Pertaining to under the tongue.
submandibular Pertaining to under the lower jaw (mandible).
triglycerides Chief form of fat (lipids) in body cells; composed of three molecules of fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol.
ulcerative colitis Inflammation of the colon and rectum with the presence of ulcers; and inflammatory bowel disease.
uvula Small, fleshy mass hanging from the soft palate at the back of the mouth.
uvulectomy Removal (excision) of the uvula.
villi Fingerlike, microscopic projections on the inner surface of the small intestine, sites of absorption of foods and fluids.
viral hepatitis Inflammation of the liver caused by a virus.
volvulus Twisting of the intestine upon itself.
Created by: mtathome
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