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Anatomy Vocab Ch 1

Anatomy Vocab Ch 1 Marieb

5 stages of mitosis prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis
cytokinesis division of cytoplasm
mitosis nuclear division
interphase the longer period when the cell grows and carries out its usual activities
cell division the cell reproduces itself by dividing
cytosol the fluid part of the cytoplasm
organelles small organs, the metabolic machinery of the cell
inclusions not part of the active metabolic machinery of the cell
ribosomes tiny spherical bodies composed of RNA and protein; seen floating free or attached to membrane structure; site of protein synthesis
endoplasmic reticulum membranous system of tubules that extends throughout the cytoplasm
golgi apparatus stack of flattened sacs with swollen ends and associated small vesicles, found close to the nucleus
lysosomes various sized membranous sacs containing digestive enzymes; act to digest worn out cell organelles; can totally destroy the cell if they rupture
peroxisomes small lysome-like membranous sacs containing oxidase enzymes that detoxify alcohol, hydrogen peroxide and other harmful chemicals
mitochondria rod-shaped bodies with double membrane wall;often referred to as the "powerhouse of the cell"
centrioles paired cylidrical bodies lie at right angles to each other, close to the nucleous, form the bases of cilia and flagella
cytoskeletal elements provide cellular support; function in intracellular transport
plasma membrane separates cell contents from the surrounding environment
cell regions nucleus, plasma membrane, cytoplasm
chromatin what react to create a chromosome
chromosomes dark staining rod-like bodies
nuclear membrane a double layered porous membrane has large nuclear ports, permitting large molecules like protein and RNA molecules to pass easily
diaphragm separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities
tissues groups of cells that are similar in structure and function
organs contain several representatives of the primary tissues and the arrangement of these tissues determines the organ's structure and function
epithelial covers surfaces
basement membrane a material secreted collectively by the epithelial cells and the connective tissue cells
epithelial cells named based on shape squamous (scalelike), cubodial (cubelike) and columnar (column shaped)
transitional epithelium rounded or plump cells with the ability to slide over one another
pseudostratified epithelium simple columnar epithelium whose cells extend varied distances
anatomy the study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts and their relationships to one another
physiology the study of how the body and its parts work or function
homeostasis the body's ability to maintain a stable internal balance tho the outside is changing
atoms the building blocks of life
cells the smallest units of all living things
organ a structure composed of two or more tissue types
organ system a group of organs that work together to accomplish a common purpose
organism organ systems makeup the living body or organism, the highest level of structural organization
necessary life functions maintaining boundaries, movement, responsiveness, digestion, metabolism, excretion, reproduction, growth
receptor a sensor that monitors and responds to changes in the environment
control center determines the set point at which a variable is to be maintained
effector provides the means for the control center's response to the stimulus
matter stuff of the universe
energy can be measured only by its effects on matter
elements what all matter is composed of
protons have a positive charge
neutrons have a neutral charge
electrons bear a negative charge equal in strength to the positive charge of the protons, is usually designated as 1
atomic number the given number of each element, that is equal to the number of protons its atoms contain
atomic mass the sum of the masses of all the protons and neutrons contained in its nucleus
radioactivity spontaneous atomic decay
isotopes have the same atomic number but have different atomic masses
electron shells or energy level the fixed region of space around a nucleus
valence shell electrons that are important when considering bonding behavior
compound when two or more different atoms bind together to form a molecule
molecule when two or more atoms combine chemically
nucleic acids makeup the genes, which provide the basic blueprint of life
nucleoli a small dark-staining round body, where ribosomes are assembled
nucleus the headquarters or control center of the cell
cytoplasm the cellular material outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane
microvilli fingerlike, tiny projections that increase the cells surface area
cells that connect body parts fibroblast, erythrocyte
cell that covers and lines body organs epithelial cell
cells that move organs and body parts skeletal muscle and smooth muscle cells
cell that store nutrients fat cell
cell that fights disease macrophage (a phagocytic cell)
cell that gathers information and controls body functions nerve cells
cells of reproduction oocyte (female) sperm (male)
diffusion process in which molecules and ions move away from a region where they are more concentrated to a region where they are less concentrated
osmosis diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
filtration process in which water and solutes are forced through a membrane by fluid or hydrostatic pressure
exocytosis moves substances out of cells
endocytosis into the cell
phagocytosis cell eating
pinocytosis cell drinking
enzymes regulate chemical reactions in cells
sagittal section cut along the lengthwise or longitudinal plane of the body, dividing into right and left
median (midsagittal) section cut is down the middle and the right and left parts are equal in size
frontal (coronal)section cut along a lengthwise plant dividing the body or oran into anterior and posterior parts
transverse section (cross section) cut along a horizontal plane dividing the body or organ into superior and inferior parts
superior (cranial) (cephalad) toward the head end or upper part of a structure of the body; above
inferior (caudal) away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure of the body; below
ventral (anterior) toward or at the front of the body; in front of
dorsal (posterior) toward or at the backside of the body; behind
medial toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of
lateral away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of
proximal close to the origin of the body part, or the point of attachement of a limb to the trunk
distal farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachement to the trunk
superficial (external) toward or at the body surface
deep (internal) away from the body surface
Created by: erosok



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