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Language of Medicine

Chapter 1: Basic Word Structure

adenoidectomy removal of adenoids
adenoid hypertrophy excessive development of adenoids
alveolar pertaining to an alveolus
bronchospasm involuntary contraction of bronchial tube muscles
bronchiectasis dilation of bronchial tubes
bronchodilator substance that widens bronchial tubes
bronchiolitis inflammation of bronchioles
hypercapnia excessive carbon dioxide in the blood
pneumoconiosis abnormal condition of dust in the lungs
cyanosis bluish coloration of skin
epiglottitis inflammation of the epiglottis
laryngeal pertaining to the larynx
laryngospasm contraction of muscles of the larynx
laryngitis inflammation of the voice box
lobectomy removal of a lobe of the lung
mediastinoscopy visual examination of the mediastinum
paranasal sinuses pertaining to spaces in the skull near the nose
nasogastric tube tube placed from nose into stomach
orthopnea breathing discomfort in any position except straight up
hypoxia deficiency of oxygen due to decreased oxygen in blood
exporation expulsion of material (mucus or phlegm)
pharyngeal pertaining to the throat
dysphonia difficult or abnormal voice
phrenic nerve nerve carrying messages from brain to diaphragm
pleurodynia pain from inflammation of pleura
pleural effusion fluid collects in the pleural cavity
pneumothorax air within the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs
pneumonectomy removal of a lung
pulmonary pertaining to lungs
rhinorrhea discharge from the nose
rhinoplasty surgical repair of the nose
sinusitis inflammation of sinuses
spirometer instrument to measure breathing
expiration expulsion of air from the lungs
respiration breathing
atelectasis incomplete expansion of a lung
thoracotomy incision of the chest
thoracic pertaining to the chest
tonsillectomy removal of tonsils
tracheotomy incision of the trachea
tracheal stenosis pertaining to narrowing of trachea
empyema pus in the pleural cavity
anosmia absence of the sense of smell
apnea stoppage of breathing
dyspnea difficult breathing
hyperpnea increase in depth of breathing
tachypnea increase in rate of breathing
hemoptysis spitting up blood
asphyxia decrease in oxygen & increase in CO2 in blood - no pulse
hemothorax blood in pleural cavity
pyothorax pus in pleural cavity
auscultation listening to sounds within the body
percussion tapping on surface to determine density differences
pleural rub scratchy sound by pleural surfaces
rales abnormal crackling sounds in alveoli
sputum material expelled from chest
purulent containing pus - sputum
stridor strained, high-pitched sound on inspiration
croup acute viral infection
diphtheria acute infection of throat
epistaxis nosebleed
pertussis bacterial infection of the pharynx, larynx, trachea
bronchiectasis chronic dilation of a bronchus (secondary)
atelectasis collapsed,airless lung
pneumoconiosis abnormal condition caused by dust in lungs
pulmonary abscess large collection of pus in lungs
pulmonary edema swelling and fluid in air sacs and bronchioles
pulmonary embolism (PE) clot in vessels of lung
pulmonary infarction area of dead (necrotic) tissue
pulmonary fibrosis formation of scar tissue in connective tissue
sarcoidosis chronic inflammation causing tubercles to develop
mesothelioma rare malignant tumor in pleura
pleural effusion abnormal accumulation of fluid in pleural space
pleurisy (pleuritis) inflammation of the pleura
pneumothorax collection of air in pleural space
exudate fluid, cells, substances slowly leave cell through pores or breaks in cell membranes
hydrothorax collection of fluid in pleural cavity
palliative relieving symptoms, but not curing
paroxysmal sudden spasm or seizure
silicosis silica or glass dust in lungs
thoracentesis surgical puncture removing fluid from pleural space
tube thoracostomy chest tube in chest to continuously drain pleural effusion
ABGs arterial blood gases
AFB acid-fast bacillus
ARDS adult respiratory distress syndrome
BAL bronchial aveolar lavage
Bronch bronchoscopy
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CPAP continuous positive airway pressure
CTA clear to auscultation
CXR chest x-ray
DLco diffusion in capacity of lung for carbon monoxide
DOE dyspnea on exertion
DPI dry powder inhaler
DPT diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus
FEV 1 Forced expirations volume in first second
FVC forced vital capacity
LLL left lower lobe
LUL left upper lobe
MDI metered-dose inhaler
NIV noninvasive ventilation
NSCLC non-small cell lung cancer
OSA obstructive sleep apnea
PaCO2 carbon dioxide partial pressure
PaO2 oxygen partial pressure
PCP Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
PE pulmonary embolism
PEEP positive end expiratory pressure
PFTs pulmonary function tests
PND paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
PPD purified protein derivative
RDS respiratory distress syndrome
RLL right lower lobe
RSV respiratory syncytial virus
RUL right upper lobe
SCLC small cell lung cancer
SIMV synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation
SOB shortness of breath
Root Foundation of the word
Suffix word ending
Combining Vowel usually O
Prefix the small part that is attached to the begining of a term.
Combining form combination of the root and the combining vowel.
aden/o gland
arthr/o joint
bi/o life
carcin/o cancerous, cancer
cardi/o heart
cephal/o head
cerebr/o cerebrum (largest part of the brain)
cis/o to cut
crin/o to secrete(to form and give off)
cyst/o urinary bladder; a sac or a cyst (sac containing fluid)
cyt/o cell
derm/o skin
dermat/o skin
electr/o electricity
encephal/o brain
enter/o intestines (usually the small intestine)
erythr/o red
gastr/o stomach
glyc/o sugar
gnos/o knowledge
gynec/o woman, female
hemat/o blood
hem/o blood
hepat/o liver
iatr/o treatment, physician
leuk/o white
log/o study of
nephr/o kidney
neur/o nerve
onc/o tumor
ophthalm/o eye
oste/o bone
path/o disease
ped/o child
psych/o mind
radi/o x-rays
ren/o kidney
rhin/o nose
sarc/o flesh
sect/o to cut
thromb/o clot, clotting
ur/o urinary tract, urine
-ac pertaining to
-al pertaining to
-algia pain
-cyte cell
-ectomy excision, removal
-emia blood condition
-genic pertaining to, produce,produced by, or produced in
-globin protein
-gram record
-ic, -ical pertaining to
-ion process
-ist specialist
-itis inflammation
-logy process of study
-oma tumor, mass, swelling
-opsy process of viewing
-osis condition, usually abnormal (slight increase in numbers when used with white blood cells)
-pathy disease condition
-scope instrument to visually examine
-scopy process of visually examining with an endoscope
-sis state of; condition
-y process, condition
a- no, not, without
an- no, not, without
aut- self, own
auto- self, own
dia- through, complete
end- within
endo- within
epi- above, upon
ex- exo- out, outside of, outward
hyper- deficient, below, under, less than normal
in- into, in
peri- surrounding, around
pro- before, forward
re- back, backward, again
retro- behind
sub- below, under
trans- across, through
Created by: mbarjranch
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