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Block 3 Head & Neck

What passes through the mental foramen? the mental n. and artery. The inferior alveolar n and artery enter the mandibular foramen and exit the mental foramen as the mental n. and a.
What is the dental formula for humans? 2-1-2-3. Incisors, canine, premolar, molars.
What passes through the infraorbital foramen? terminal branch of maxillary n, infraorbital nerve and infraorbital vessels
What passes through the jugular foramen? internal jugular vein, CNs IX, X, XI
What passes... through the stylomastoid foramen? the facial n (CN VII)
Which triangle is the cervical plexus in? posterior triangle
What are the nerves of the extraocular muscles? All are innervated by CN III (Oculomotor) except lateral rectus(abducens) and superior oblique(trochlear)
What passes through the superior orbital fissure? CN III, IV, VI, Opthalmic n and opthalmic veins
What are the branches of the opthalmic nerve (V-1)? NFL. Nasociliary, frontal(supraorbital and supratrochlear), lacrimal
What are the branches of the maxillary nerve? (V-2)? ZIPS. Zygomatic, infraorbital, palatine, superior alveolar
What are the major branches of the mandibular nerve (V-3)? LABIAM. Lingual, Auriculotemporal, buccal, Inferior Alveolar, mylohyoid (nerve to)
What would a lesion to CN V cause? loss of touch, pain, temp sensation, loss of afferent limb of corneal reflex, paralysis of mastication mm
What does CN V innervate? (Motor and sensory) Motor: muscles of mastication, mylohyoid, tensor tympani and tensor veli palatini, anterior belly of digastric
What are the contents of the carotid sheath? IC 10CCs in the IV. Internal carotid, Vagus Nerve, Common Carotid, Internal jugular vein
What are the components of Horner's syndrome? PAM. Ptosis, Anhidrosis, Miosis
What happens in facial nerve lesions? muscular paralysis, possible loss of taste to anterior 2/3 tongue, loss of efferent limb of corneal reflex, possible decreased secretions from lacrimal/salivary glands
What does the Facial nerve innervate? (motor) "facial expression to say PSS". muscles of facial expression, posterior belly of digastric stapedius, stylohyoid,
What are the branches of the facial artery? "Look at that stupid asshole". Labial (superior and inferior), angular, tonsillar, submental, ascending palatine
What does the hypoglossal n (CN XII) innervate? Somatic motor innervation to all the "glossus" mm except palatoglossus since it is not really a tongue m
A lesion to the hypoglossal n would cause what? deviate tongue to side of lesion
What two nerves come off of the facial nerve and what do they innervate? Greater petrosal n.- motor to lacrimal gland, pregang PS to pterygopalatine ganglion. Chorda tympani- taste to anterior 2/3 tongue, pregang PS to submandilar gang
What is responsible for the Efferent limb of the corneal reflex? Facial nerve (CN VII)
What is responsible for the Afferent limb of the corneal reflex? Trigeminal nerve (CN V)
Why is there no lacrimal or salivary secretion effect in Bell's Palsy? Because it is an irritation of the stylomastoid foramen, and Greater petrosal and chorda tympani branch off before that
What does the Vagus nerve innervate? carotid body/sinus, pharynx/larynx, thoracic/abdominal viscera, dura mater and external ear
What are the two ganglia for the vagus nerve? Superior ganglion- somatic sensory, Inferior/nodose ganglion- visceral sensory
What are the two laryngeal nerves that the vagus nerve branches off into? 1) recurrent laryngeal nn--> inferior laryngeal nn. 2) superior laryngeal nn--> internal and external laryngeal nn
What are the 2 limbs of the gag reflex? Sensory is glossopharyngeal n, motor is vagus n
What would a lesion to the Vagus nerve cause? Motor, then sensory Motor- increased heart rate, reduced peristalsis, decreased secretions (since it is parasympathetic and these things cannot occur). Sensory- loss of perception of dura and external ear
What does the inferior laryngeal n innervate? All of the phonation muscles
What do the two branches of superior laryngeal innervate? 1) Internal laryngeal n- sensory to larynx. 2) External laryngeal n- motor to cricothyroid m
What innervates the posterior 1/3 of the tongue? Glossopharyngeal does both motor and sensory for the posterior 1/3
What would a lesion of the Hypoglossal nerve do to the carotid body/sinus? interrupt homeostasis, very serious if bilateral
What would hypoglossal n lesion do to pharynx? would weaken swallowing, since it innervates stylopharyngeus m which elevates the pharynx
Describe the anastamosis in the nasal cavity. Between anterior/posterior ethmoid aa (opthalmic, internal carotid) and sphenopalatine a (maxillary, external carotid)
Describe an epidural bleed. Middle meningeal a rupture. Lens like shape on CT. Talk and Die syndrome
Describe a subarachnoid hemorrhage. worst headache of my life! cerebral aa bleed in subarachnoid space
Describe subdural bleed. bridging veins ruptured.
How can a superficial infection of the scalp transfer deeper into the cranial cavity? via Emissary veins
Where is the cervical plexus located? Deep to SCM, b/t levator scapulae and middle scalene mm
What are the 4 sensory divisions of the cervical plexus? Lesser occipital, greater auricular, transverse cervical, supraclavicular
Created by: dkozhev



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