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Axial Skeleton

Bones of the skull, vertebrae, and ribs

Cranial fossae - anterior, middle, and posterior - compose the intracranial cavity
Coronal suture - runs in the coronal plane - located where parietal bones meet frontal bone
Squamous suture - occurs where each temporal bone meets a parietal bone inferiorly
Sagittal suture - occurs where right and left parietal bones meet superiorly
Lambdoid suture - occurs where the parietal bone meet the occipital bone posteriorly
Sutural bones - small bones that occur within sutures - irregular in shape, size, location - not all people have them
Supraorbital margin - superior margin of the orbits
Glabella - smooth part of the frontal bone between superciliary (eyebrow) arches
Occipital bone - forms posterior portion of the cranium and cranial base - articulates with temporal bones and parietal bones - forms posterior cranial fossa - foramen magnum located at its base
Frontal bone - forms the forehead and roofs of orbits - contributes to anterior cranial fossa
Occipital bone features - occipital condyles - hypoglossal foramen - external occipital protuberance - superior nuchal lines - inferior nuchal line
Temporal bones - lie inferior to parietal bones - form the inferolateral part of skull - contributes to the middle and posterior cranial fossa
Mastoid process - site for neck muscle attachment - contains air sinuses - part of the temporal bone
Petrous region - projects medially, contributes to cranial base - appears as bony wedge b/w occipital bone posteriorly and sphenoid bone anteriorly - houses cavity of middle and internal ear
Foramina of the temporal bone - jugular foramen: at boundary with occipital bone - carotid canal - foramen lacerum - internal acoustic meatus
Sphenoid bone - spans width of cranial floor - has 3 pairs of processes - "keystone" of the cranium
Sella turcica - saddle-shaped prominence in superior part of sphenoid bone - contains the hypophyseal fossa, which holds the pituitary gland
Sphenoid bone processes - Greater wings - Lesser wings - Pterygoid process
Sphenoid bone openings - optic canal - superior orbital fissure - foramen rotundum - foramen ovale - foramen spinosum
Ethmoid bone - lies between nasal and sphenoid bones - forms most of the medial bony region between nasal cavity and orbits
Cribiform plate - superior surface of the ethmoid bone - contain olfactory foramina
Crista galli - attachment for falx cerebri (large vertical sheet between cerebral hemispheres
Perpendicular plate - forms superior part of nasal septum
Mandible - largest and strongest facial bone - 2 parts: horizontal body and two upright rami
Maxillary bones - articulate with all facial bones except the mandible - contain maxillary sinuses - part of the interior orbital fissure - "keystone" facial bones
Zygomatic bones - form lateral wall of the orbits
Nasal bones - form bridge of the nose
Lacrimal bones - located in medial orbital walls
Palatine bones - complete the posterior part of the hard palate
Vomer - forms inferior part of the nasal septum
Inferior nasal conchae - thin, curved bones that project medially & form lateral walls of nasal cavity
Paranasal sinuses - air filled sinuses within frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, and maxillary bones - lined with mucous membrane - lighten the skull
Orbit walls - roof - lateral wall - medial wall - floor - formed by frontal, sphenoid, zygomatic, maxillary, palatine, lacrimal, and ethmoid bones
Orbit wall openings - superior orbital fissures - inferior orbital fissures - optic canals - lacrimal fossa
Hyoid bone - inferior to mandible in anterior neck - acts as movable base for tongue - not directly in contact with any other bone
Vertebral curvatures - concave: cervical and lumbar - develop when baby starts to walk - convex: thoracic and sacral - present at birth - increase resilience of spine -
Anterior longitudinal ligament - attaches to bony vertebrae and intervertebral discs - prevents hyperextension
Posterior longitudinal ligament - narrow and relatively weak - attaches to intervertebral discs
Nucleus pulposus - gelatinous inner sphere of intervertebral disc - absorbs compressive stresses
Annulus fibrosus - outer rings formed of ligament - inner rings formed of fibrocartilage - contain the nucleus pulposus
General structure of vertebrae - body - vertebral arch - vertebral foramen - spinous process - transverse process - superior articular process - inferior articular process - intervertebral foramina
Atlas - first cervical vertebrae - lacks body and spinous process - superior articular facets receive occipital condyles, supports skull - allows flexion and extension of neck
Axis - has body and spinous process - second cervical vertebrae
Dens (odontoid process) - formed from fusion of the body of atlas with the axis - acts as pivot for rotation of axis and skull - participates in rotating head from side to side
Vertebrae C3-C7 - body: small and wide laterally - short & bifid spinous process extends posteriorly (except C7) - vertebral foramen: triangular and large - transverse processes have foramina
Thoracic vertebrae - all articulate with ribs - body: larger than cervical bodies - spinous processes: long and point inferiorly - vertebral foramen are circular
Costal facets - inferior, superior - transverse (except T11-T12) - present on both sides of vertebrae - head of rib attached to inferior costal facet of superior vertebra and superior costal facet of inferior vertebra
Connections between thoracic and vertebral bodies - laterally, each side of vertebral body has 2 facets (demifacets) - demifacets interface with vertebral bodies above and below - superior articular facets point posteriorly - inferior articular processes point anteriorly
Thoracic cage - forms framework of the chest - protects thoracic organs - supports shoulder girdle and upper limbs - 3 components: thoracic vertebrae (posteriorly), ribs (laterally), sternum & costal cartilage (anteriorly)
Manubrium - superior section of sternum - articulates with medial end of clavicles
Body - bulk of sternum - sides are notched at articulations for costal cartilage of ribs 2-7
Xiphoid process - inferior end of sternum - ossifies around age 40
Jugular notch - central indentation of superior border of manubrium
Sternal angle - horizontal ridge where manubrium joins the body
Xiphisternal joint - where sternal body and xiphoid process fuse - lies at level of T9
Rib pairs 1-7 - vertebrosternal ribs - superior 7 pairs of ribs which attach to sternum by costal cartilage
Rib pairs 8-10 - vertebrochondral ribs - airs of ribs which attach to sternum indirectly
Rib pairs 11-12 - floating ribs - are not attached to sternum
Lumbar vertebrae - thick & robust bodies - thin & tapered transverse processes - spinous processes are thick, blunt, point posteriorly - triangular vertebral foramina
Sacrum - shapes posterior wall of pelvis - formed from 5 fused vertebrae - superior surface articulates with L5 - inferiorly articulates with coccyx
Sacral promontory - where the anterosuperior margin of first sacral vertebrae bulges into pelvic cavity - human body's center of gravity is 1 cm posterior to sacral promontory
Sacrum: anterior view - sacral promontory - four transverse ridges cross anterior surface of the sacrum, marking the lines of fusion of sacral vertebrae - anterior sacral foramina transmit ventral divisions of sacral spinal nerves
Sacrum: posterior view - median sacral crest: represents fused spinal processes of sacral vertebrae - posterior sacral foramina: transmit dorsal rami of sacral spinal nerves - lateral sacral crest - ala: develop from fused rib elements
Sacral foramina - ventral foramina: passage for ventral rami of sacral spinal nerves - dorsal foramina: passage of dorsal rami of sacral spinal nerves
Coccyx - tailbone - 3-5 fused vertebrae - offers only slight support to pelvic organs
Cleft palate - common congenital disorder - right and left halves of palate fail to fuse medially
Stenosis of lumbar spine - narrowing of the vertebral canal - can compress roots of spinal nerves
Abnormal spinal curvatures - Scoliosis: abnormal spinal curvature - Kyphosis: exaggerated thoracic curvature - Lordosis: accentuated lumbar curvature
Axial skeleton throughout life - flat membrane bones begin to ossify in 2nd month of development - bone tissue grows outward from ossification centers - at birth, skull bones are separated by still-unossified remnants of membranes
Fontanelles - still-unossified remnants of membranes at birth - anterior, posterior, mastoid, sphenoidal - allows skull to be safely compressed & molded as infant passes thru birth canal - usually replaced about a year after birth
Created by: peckman12



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