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Bone Tissue

Anatomy of bone tissue

Hyaline cartilage - most abundant cartliage - rich in collagen fibers - support through flexibility and resisting compression - articular cartliage at ends of adjoining bones of movable joints - attachments of ribs to sternum - nose
Elastic cartliage - many elastic fibers as well as collagen fibers - able to tolerate repeated bending - present in ear pinna and epiglottis
Fibrocartilage - resists strong compression and strong tension - located in pubic symphysis, some ligaments - articular discs of some joints (ex. knees) - annulus fibrosis portion of discs between vertebrae
Perichondrium - membrane of fibrous CT that surrounds external surface of cartilage
Appositional growth - chondroblasts in surrounding perichondrium produce new cartilage
Interstitial growth - chondrocytes within cartilage divide and secrete new matrix
Osteocalcin - stimulates pancreas to produce more insulin and fat cells to become more insulin sensitive
Bone ECM composition 35% organic components 65% inorganic mineral salts
Osteogenic cells stem cells that differentiate into osteoblasts
Osteoblasts - actively produce and secrete bone matrix - bone matrix = osteoid
Osteocytes - keep bone matrix healthy
Osteoclasts - resorb bone - derived from white blood cells - secrete HCl and lysosomal enzymes - multinucleated
Long bones - longer than wide - a shaft plus two ends - common in extremities of body
Short bones - roughly cube-shaped - in wrist and ankle - special type: sesamoid bones (in kneecap)
Flat bones - thin and flattened, usually curved - ribs, sternum, scapula, and some cranial bones
Irregular bones - bones of various shapes that don't fit into other categories - vertebrae and hip bones
Compact bone - dense outer layer of bone
Spongy bone - internal 3D network of bones with small needle-like pieces called trabeculae - open spaces between trabeculae are filled with red or yellow bone marrow
Diaphysis - "shaft" - long axis of bone
Epiphysis - ends of a bone with joint surfaces typically covered with a thin layer of articular cartilage (hyaline)
Epiphyseal line - runs between diaphysis and epiphysis in adults - remnant of epiphyseal plate
Medullary cavity - interior of all bones consists largely of spongy bone with marrow in between trabeculae - the very center of the diaphysis has no spongy bone and is filled with yellow bone marrow
Periosteum - CT membrane which covers external surface of the bone except for ends of epiphyses - provides insertion points for tendons and ligaments
2 layers of periosteum - Superficial outer layer: dense irregular CT that resists tension placed on bone - Deep inner layer: abuts compact outer surface of compact bone --> osteogenic layer
Perforating fibers (Sharpey's fibers) - secure periosteum to the underlying bone with thick bundles of collagen that run from periosteum into bone matrix
Endosteum - thin CT layer which lines internal bone surfaces - includes trabeculae of spongy bone and inner surface of central canals of osteons - osteogenic; contains both osteoblasts and osteoclasts
Structure of short, irregular, flat bones - no diaphysis - hard dense compact outer layer of bone - diploe: internal spongy bone with trabeculae flat bones - no deep marrow cavity is present
Bone design and stress - trabeculae of spongy bones align alongside lines of stress in an organized pattern to provide structural support - anatomy of a bone reflects stresses
Bone markings - superficial surfaces of bones reflect stresses on them - 3 broad categories: projections for muscle and ligament attachment, surfaces that form joints, and depressions & openings
Osteons (Haverson systems) - long cylindrical structures oriented parallel to long axis of bone - function in support - group of concentric tubes
Osteon structure - group of concentric tubes - each concentric tube is a lamella with layer of bone matrix in which collagen fibers & mineral crystals align + run in one direction - fibers and crystals of adjacent lamella run in opposite direction
Central canal/Haversian system - canal which runs through each osteon - lined with osteogenic endosteum layer - Perforating canals lie perpendicular to central canals; connect blood and nerve supply of periosteum to central canals and central marrow cavity
Canaliculi - connect neighboring lacunae to one another and to capillaries for nutrient supply - within the canaliculi, extensions of neighboring osteocytes touch and form gap junctions for nutrient exchange
Lamellae - Interstitial lamellae: groups of incomplete lamellae which lie between osteons; remains of old osteons cut through by bone remodeling - Circumferential lamelllae: extends around entire circumference of diaphysis
Microscopic structure of spongy bone - trabeculae are too small to contain osteons or its own blood vessels - osteocytes receive nutrients from capillaries in endosteum surrounding trabecular via connections through the canaliculi
Membrane bones - form directly from mesenchym without first being modeled in cartilage through intramembranous ossification
Endochondrial bones - bones are modeled in hyaline cartilage - all bones except some bones of the skull and clavicles
Epiphyseal growth areas - cartilage is organized for quick, efficient growth - cartilage cells form tall stacks - pushes epiphysis away from diaphysis - lengthens entire long bone
Epiphyseal plate - Resting zone - Proliferation zone - Hypertrophic zone - Ossification zone
Hormonal regulation of bone growth - growth hormone, produced by pituitary gland; stimulates epiphyseal plates - thyroid hormone: ensures skeleton retains proper proportions - sex hormones: promote bone growth, later induce closure of epiphyseal plates
Bone remodeling - occurs at periosteal and endosteal surfaces - bone deposition: accomplished by osteoblasts - bone resorption: accomplished by osteoclasts - maintains constant levels of calcium and phosphate in body fluids
Bone fractures - simple fracture: bone fracture without penetrating skin - compound fracture: bone fracture that breaks the skin - treatment by reduction: closed = manually set with hands, open = surgically set with pins/wires
Phases of bone healing - Hematoma formation - Fibrocartilage callus formation - Bony callus formation - Bone remodeling
Osteoporosis - characterized by low bone mass - bone resorption outpaces bone deposition - compact bone becomes thinner and less dense and spongy bone has fewer trabeculae
Created by: peckman12