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CLEP Natural Science

Study for the CLEP test for Natural Sciences

Microvilli are? Filaments to absorb. They also have digestive enzymes.
What are secretory vesicles? They are packages packaged by golgi apparatus or endoplasmic reticulum. They carry synthesized substances.
Network Covalent bonds are? Examples? Hard, have high boiling points, are bad conductors, and are very strong. Examples: SiC, diamonds, SiO2
Metalic bonds are? Examples? In mercury, copper, etc. D orbital electrons move around making it a good conductor.
Word for non-vascular plants? Example? Bryophytes. Mosses.
Word for flowering plants. Angiosperms (root and shoot).
Plants producing seeds without flowers? Example? Gymnosperms. Conifers.
Definition of radiation? Heat traveling away from source through space in waves.
Plant evolution began with what? Aerobic prokaryotic cells.
Where does the transfer of nutrients to a mammal embryo take place? The placenta.
Sequence of human evolution? Australopithecus afarensis (Lucy), Homo Erectus, Cro Magnon (Homo sapiens), Modern Man.
Sequence of covalent bonds? First sigma, then pi.
Equinoxes and Solstices? Equinoxes are when the sun crosses the celestial equator and solstices are when the sun's ecliptic is farthest away from the celestial equator.
What do inorganic cofactos do? They help enzymes with catalysis.
Keton group? Double bond between oxygen and carbon.
Alcohol group? Carbon single bond to OH.
Ester group? Carbon double bond to oxygen.
Aldehyde group? Carbon double bonded to oxygen with no other carbons.
Which came first: eukaryotes or photosynthetic cells? Photosynthetic cells.
The process that releases energy for the cell to use is called? Cellular respiration (aerobic and anaerobic).
Ohm's Law? C=V/R, V=CxR, R=V/C
What do simple machines do? Name five. They alter the magnitude and direction of a force. Lever, wheel and axle, pulley, inclined plane, screw.
What does the quantum number n mean? The shell the electron occupies. 1-7. The higher the number the more energy.
What does the quantum number l mean? The subshell the electron occupies; the shape of the orbital. There are four possibilities: s, p, d, f.
What does the quantum number ml mean? The orbital position. The orbital with the most negative number is filled first. s: 0>= p: -1,0,1 >= d: -2, -1, 0, 1, 2 >= f: -3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3 >=
What does the quantum number ms mean? Each orbital has as many as two electrons, one positive and one negative (+1/2, -1/2). The first ground state in th orbital takes +1/2.
What is the constant temperature in the change from liquid to solid and back again called? Heat of fusion.
What is the alimentary canal? It is also known as the GI (gastrointestinal tract). Goes from the mouth to the intestines.
Examples of: Igneous Rock Metamorphic Rock Sedimentary Rock Granite Marble White Limestone, Sandstone, Cement
By what does the sun generate energy? Fusion.
What keeps body conditions normal? Homeostatic mechanisms.
What organisms use photosynthesis? Autotrophs.
What does a redshift signify? It means that a star is moving away from the observer.
What distinguishes a prokaryote? Example? Prokaryotes have no nucleus-or-membrane-bound-organelles. Blue-green algae.
Ordovician Period marked by? Mass extinctions followed by diversification of species. Also the development of land plants.
Silurian Period marked by? Adaptive radiation.
What is present in reproductive organs at birth? Primary oocytes.
Postitron decay? Proton ----> Neutron Mass number the same, atomic number decreases by 1.
Beta decay? Neutron ----> Proton Mass number the same, atomic number increases by 1.
The Law of Minimums Shortest supply in ecoystem limits population growth.
Each quark is called a? How many types? What are they? Flavor. Six. Up, down, strange, charm, top, bottom.
Classification from least to most specific? Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.
Four Fundamental Forces in order of magnitude? Strong nuclear, Electromagnetic, Weak nuclear, Gravity.
Isotonic? Water pressure is equal inside and outside the cell.
Define Inertia The tendency of a body to maintain its state of rest or uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force.
How do vitamins relate to enzymatic reactions? Vitamins are organic cofactors.
Prosthetic groups? Ions or non-protein molecules that lightly attach to an enzyme to facilitate enzyme reaction.
How does an alluvial fan differ from a delta? An alluvial fan is the result of a fast-moving stream out of a mountain canyon, a delta is from a river emptying into a lake or ocean.
Adiabatic process? Example? A thermodynamic process that doesn't involve the transfer of heat. Like a window pane with a partition of air between panes that keeps in heat.
Catabolism? The breakdown in living organisms of more complex substances into simpler ones together with release of energy.
Anabolism? The synthesis in living organisms of more complex substances (e.g., living tissue) from simpler ones together with the storage of energy
Metabolism? The organic processes (in a cell or organism) that are necessary for life (catabolism and anabolism).
Dalton's Law? Dalton's law (also called Dalton's law of partial pressures) states that the total pressure exerted by a gaseous mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of each individual component in a gas mixture.
Charles' Law? Charles's law (also known as the law of volumes) is an experimental gas law which describes how gases tend to expand when heated.
Boyle's Law? Boyle's law describes the inversely proportional relationship between the absolute pressure and volume of a gas, if the temperature is kept constant within a closed system.
Parallax of a star? It is the angular difference measured when a star is observed once then six months later, ie when the Earth has moved along half a rotation around the Sun.
First kind of cells to evolve? Prokarytic cells from Kingdom Monera.
Name for the visible surface of the sun? The photosphere.
Corona? Ring outside sun's surface that shows during eclipse.
Properties of dicots? Two cotyledons per seed, taproot systems, petals in multiples of 4 or 5, network or branching veins, vascular bundles in rings.
What did the Michelson-Morley experiment demonstrate? That the speed of light is the same in all directions.
The law of segregation is? Genes are separated in gamete formation and randomly brought together in fertilization (in other words, one pair of genes from each parent).
Formula to change C to F? C = 5/9(F-32)
Cathode? Anode? A cathode is an electrode through which electric current flows out of a polarized electrical device. An anode is an electrode through which electric current flows into a polarized electrical device.
Minerals are? Substances that were never part of a living organism and are found in nature.
Ratio of unit of magnitude and brightness of stars? 1 unit/2.5 times brightness
Passive and active transport in cell? The cell (plasma) membrane.
Heat of Vaporization, or enthalpy? Amount of energy needed to turn substance into a gas.
Heat of fusion? Amount of energy needed to turn substance from liquid to solid, or vice versa.
Sharp boundary of an ecosystem? Ecotone.
Chondrichthyes? Osteichthyes? Cartalaginous fish. Bony fish.
Created by: LearningLark
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