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Cells - ANA 109

Exam 1

QuestionAnswer
What are the 3 major divisons of a cell? Cytoplasm, Cell Membrane, Nucleus
What is cytoplasm THe contents of the cell that surround the nucleus
What are organelles and what is their purpose they perform energy requiring activities of the cell They are surrounded by cytoplasm ie. mitochondria, er
What are the functions of the Cell Membrane 1. Control massafe of material in and out of cell 2. Control Cell interactions 3. Maintain Chemical differences inside and outside of cell
What is the cell membrane composed of? Lipids, Proteins, Carbohydrates
Lipids Phospholipid and cholesterol 35% of weight of membrane
Proteins Larger than lipids. 1:50 ratio with lipids
What are integral membrane proteins (span membrane) initially -ion pumps chelsea-Channels raced-receptors- bind to messengers trevor-transducers every-enzymes scenario-structural -break down left behind messengers
Carbohydrates attach to outer surface as Glycocalyx function in cell adhesion or as receptor sites
Glycocalyx a carbohydrate. form a layer of glycoprotein -important i cell recognition
Structure of Cell Membrane -also a hand written card- lipid bilayer -2 fatty acid chains = 2 phosphate group bound glycerol heads *phosphate loves water* *tails hate water* -selectively permeable membrane-
Nucleus Large Spherical structure that contains genetic material-directs all celular activity
Nuclear Envelope double layered phospholipid membrane with intervening perinuclear space -studded with ribosomes
Perinuclear Space space in between bilayers. continuous with cisternae of rough ER
Nuclear Pores openings in envelope channesl with selective transport mechanisms inner and outer nuclear membranes -continuos at the rim of the pore
Nuclear Lamina structural element
nucleoplasm material enclosed by nuclear envelope active in protein synthesis
nucleolus little nucleus site of rRNA synthesis some cells have 2 -help produce ribosomes
protoplasm cytoplasm=nucleoplasm
Endoplasmic reticulum composed of membrane limited flattened sacs=cisternae synthesis in certain molecules
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum also called granular make protein from mRNA ribosomes attached synthesizes lysosomal and secretory proteins
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum agranular functions: lipid synthesis detoxificationof drugs and alcohol glycogen metabolism; as enzyme that breaks down glycogen and glucose
Ribosomes sythesize secretory proteins read coded genetic info in mRNA and use that to make proteins
where are ribosomes located attached to rER free in cytoplasm cell membrane
Golgi apparatus membranes continuous with ER and nuclear envelope functions in ,odification and packaging of proteins and forms lysosomes directs traffic through cell --intracelular sequence of protein synthesis
parts of golgi aparatus 1. forming face (CIS) 2. maturing face (trans, outer, concave) 3.Transport vesicles: to cell membrane or organelles
Mitochondria ENERGYY serves as a reservoir for calcium ions contains enzyme system that generates ATP
Lysosomes Clean up crew! Phagocytosis: cell eating Pinocytosis cell drinking
Primary Lysosome unchanged from origin at golgi apparatus
Phagosome contains particulate matter brought into cell via endocytosis autophagasome: contains worn out cell parts or metabolic products
overall intracellular sequence of protein synthesis 3 scenarios free proteins become incorperated i cell surface ie channel receptors proteins released outside of cell
Microphages large role in cell division form mitotic spindle tubulin dimers
microfilaments threadlike fibers actin filaments
centrioles similar to microtubules always in pairs mitotic spindle fibers
types of cell populations static-braincell stable-liver cell, red blood cell renewing-skin
Interphase G0 phase G1 phase S phase G2 phase
G0 phase cells that dont intens to divide spend interphase here, includes normal life activities
G1 phase growth; making enough cytoskeleton, organelles, cytosol etc for 2 cells
S phase chromosomal (DNA) replication
G2 phase last minute protein synthesis
Mitosis division of the cell nucleus
Prophase DNA is tightly wound. DNA and proteins condense from chromatin. joined by a centriole
Metaphase chromosomes line up between centrioles, attached by spindle fibers
Anaphase Chromatids separate by spindle shortening now called daughter chromosomes
Telophase chromatids draw near centrioles elongate nuclear envelope begins to form
Cytokenesis cellular division begins during anaphase by constructing a ring of microfilaments
Movements into and out of cell use... passive or active processes
Passive require mo cellular energy simple diffusion faciltated diffusion osmosis filtration
active require cellular energy active transport endocytosis exocytosis transcytosis # of molecules does not matter
simple diffusion high concentration to low concentration
facilitated diffusion diffusion across membrane with help of channel of carrier molecule
Osmosis movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane..high to low concentration
Osmotic Pressure ability of osmosis to generate enough pressure to move a volume of water -increases as the concentration of nonpermeable solute increase
hypertonic higher osmotic pressure -cell has weird shape
hypotonic lower osmotic pressure -water moves into cell so cell explodes
isotonic same osmotic pressiure -hold shape
filtration smaller molecules are forced through porous membranes hydrostatic pressure important n the body molecules leaving blood capilaries
active transport carrier molecules transport substances across a membrane from high concentration to low concentration sugars amino acids, sodium ions, potassium ions etc
endocytosis cell engulfs a substance by forming a vesicle around substance
3 types of endocytosis pinocytosis phagocytosis receptor-mediated endocytosis
pinocytosis
Primary Lysosome unchanged from origin at golgi apparatus
Phagosome contains particulate matter brought into cell via endocytosis autophagasome: contains worn out cell parts or metabolic products
overall intracellular sequence of protein synthesis 3 scenarios free proteins become incorperated i cell surface ie channel receptors proteins released outside of cell
Microphages large role in cell division form mitotic spindle tubulin dimers
microfilaments threadlike fibers actin filaments
centrioles similar to microtubules always in pairs mitotic spindle fibers
types of cell populations static-braincell stable-liver cell, red blood cell renewing-skin
Interphase G0 phase G1 phase S phase G2 phase
G0 phase cells that dont intens to divide spend interphase here, includes normal life activities
G1 phase growth; making enough cytoskeleton, organelles, cytosol etc for 2 cells
S phase chromosomal (DNA) replication
G2 phase last minute protein synthesis
Mitosis division of the cell nucleus
Prophase DNA is tightly wound. DNA and proteins condense from chromatin. joined by a centriole
Metaphase chromosomes line up between centrioles, attached by spindle fibers
Anaphase Chromatids separate by spindle shortening now called daughter chromosomes
Telophase chromatids draw near centrioles elongate nuclear envelope begins to form
Cytokenesis cellular division begins during anaphase by constructing a ring of microfilaments
Movements into and out of cell use... passive or active processes
Passive require mo cellular energy simple diffusion faciltated diffusion osmosis filtration
active require cellular energy active transport endocytosis exocytosis transcytosis # of molecules does not matter
simple diffusion high concentration to low concentration
facilitated diffusion diffusion across membrane with help of channel of carrier molecule
Osmosis movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane..high to low concentration
Osmotic Pressure ability of osmosis to generate enough pressure to move a volume of water -increases as the concentration of nonpermeable solute increase
hypertonic higher osmotic pressure -cell has weird shape
hypotonic lower osmotic pressure -water moves into cell so cell explodes
isotonic same osmotic pressiure -hold shape
filtration smaller molecules are forced through porous membranes hydrostatic pressure important n the body molecules leaving blood capilaries
active transport carrier molecules transport substances across a membrane from high concentration to low concentration sugars amino acids, sodium ions, potassium ions etc
endocytosis cell engulfs a substance by forming a vesicle around substance virus, bacteria sugar etc
3 types of endocytosis pinocytosis phagocytosis receptor-mediated endocytosis
pinocytosis substance is mostly water
phagocytosis substance is solid
receptor-mediated endocytosis requires the substance to bind to a membrane-bound receptor
exocytosis reverse of endo contents fuse wiht cell membrane contents is released outside the cell
transocytosis trans-move..goes throughout transports substance rapidly though cell HIV crossing a cell layer
Created by: mahu224