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Anatomy - Back


Lordosis Spinal Curvature which is concave posteriorly
Kyphosis Spinal curvature which is concave anteriorly
scoliosis lateral curvature of the vertebral column and is used to describe a pathological condition
vertebral unit two adjacent vertebrae and the intervertebral disc between them, if present
intervertebral (IV) disk a fibro-cartilaginous structure composed of an outer, circumferential 'annulus' and an inner, gelatinous 'nucleus pulposis'
primary curvatures the two curvatures in the vertebral column that are present at birth (both kyphoses, in the thoracic & sacral spine)
Secondary Curvatures concave posteriorly, in cervical & lumbar regions (both lordosis)
cervical region 7 cranial vertebrae
thoracic region 12 vertebrae, with ribs form the bony thorax
lumbar region inferior 5 vertebrae, low back region
sacral region 5 fused vertebrae
coccygeal region 4 coudal-most, vestigial vertebrae
vertebral body/centrum largest single element of the individual vertebra, major function is to transmit force (compression) through length of vertebral column
vertebral (neural) arch encloses the spinal cord
articular processes (two on each side) extend superiorly and inferiorly from the neural arch, forming a connection with adjacent vertebra
articular facets (superior & inferior) the smooth articulating surfaces on the articular processes
facet joints (zygapophyseal joints) the synovial joints formed by the interposed articular facets of adjacent vertebrae
pedicle the half of the neural arch anterior to the articular processes
lamina the half of the neural arch posterior to the articular processes
spinous process dorsal extension from the apex of the neural arch
Foramen Magnum Massive opening gaping through the occipital bone. spinal cord, vertebral arteries, and spinal root of the accessory nerve (cranial nerve XI) pass through
Occipital Bone Posterior portion of skull
Maxilla Anterior portion of skull
Zygomatic Arches Arch on lateral most portion of the skull
Mastoid processes Lateral, inferior most portion just lateral and inferior to the occipital bone. The sternocleidomastoid and longissimus capitis muscles attach to this.
External Occipital Protuberance Divides Superior Nuchal Line in halves
Superior Nuchal Lines Trapezius attaches to this, lateral line to both sides of the external occipital protuberance
Inferior Nuchal Lines They run transversely across the occiput in parallel with the superior nuchal lines and serve as the attachment points for most of the suboccipital muscles.
External Occipital Crest Runs vertically from the external occipital protuberance to the posterior aspect of the foramen magnum, perpendicular to the nuchal lines. Attachment site for the massive neck ligament - the ligament nuchae.
Occipital Condyles On either side of the foramen magnum, smooth & curved, articulate with the superior articular facets/processes of the first cervical vertebra (atlas, CV1) as the atlantooccipital joint.
Upper Cervical Segment The first two cervical vertebrae - the atlas & axis.
Atlas (CV1) CV1
Superior articular facets Superior articulation points on vertebrae
Lateral Masses Found on Atlas - just medial to the superior articular facets
Inferior articular facets inferior articulation points on vertebrae
transverse processes Lateral most processes on vertebrae, However, on lumbar these are often called costal processes
Anterior Arch In place of the centrum, anteriorly on the Atlas (CV1)
Anterior Tubercle Atlas: Found on the anterior surface of the anterior arch and serves as an attachment for the anterior longitudinal ligament that runs the length of the vertebral column
Facet for Dens Smooth, circular facet, located on the posterior aspect of the arch of Atlas
Posterior Arch Atlas: Joins the lateral masses posteriorly
Groove for the Vertebral Artery Atlas: Groove just lateral to posterior arch on superior side
Posterior Tubercle (atlas) Atlas: In place of spinous processes of other vertebrae
Transverse foramina Openings in the transverse processes
Axis 2nd Vertebra, CV2
Dens Axis: peg like facet which articulates with Atlas
Lower cervical segment 3rd - 7th cervical vertebrae
Anterior/Posterior Tubercle (C3-7) Just Lateral to the transverse foramina on C3-7
Costotransverse bar Joins the Anterior and posterior tubercles on C3-C7
Uncinate process Cranially projecting ridge on lateral sides of vertebral bodies of C3-T1
Vertebra Prominens Spinous process of TV1
Superior/Inferior Demifacet (costal facet) Articulation w/ head of ribs on thoracic vertebrae
Transverse costal facet On tip of transverse process, articulates with the rib tubercle
Facet for the tubercle of the Rib (Costal Facet on Transverse Process) Articulation point for rib on transverse process of TV2-TV8
Costal Head of Rib End of rib which articulates w/ vertebrae
Neck of Rib Between head and costal tubercle of rib
Costal Tubercle Just lateral to the neck of a rib, also has an articulating surface, which articulates with the transverse process of the vertebrae
Accessory Process Just medial to the transverse process on the lamina of the neural arch (on Lumbar). Usually a small bump.
Mammillary process Just lateral to the articular facet on Lumbar, Attachment site for the multifidus muscle
Anterior Sacral Foramina Holes in sacrum. these transmit the anterior primary rami of the sacral spinal nerves.
ALA Wing on sacrum, portion lateral to the anterior sacral foramnia
Promontory Slight projection of the centrum of SV1, along the ventral midline
Transverse Lines Four fused lines of the sacral vertebrae
Sagittal Crest Crest down the posterior side of the sacrum
Sacral Hiatus Located @ inferior end of median sacral crest (sagittal crest)
Sacral canal Inferior to the median sacral crest, runs from cranial to caudal on posterior side of sacrum
Posterior Sacral Foramina Holes on posterior side of sacrum, transmit the posterior primary rami of the sacral spinal nerves.
Lateral Sacral Crest Lateral to the posterior sacral foramina, these represent the fused sacral transverse processes
Auricular Surface Rough, extensive lateral surface of sacrum, by which articulation w/ iliac bones @ sacroiliac joints occurs
Created by: imthemorg