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The Skeletal System

Chap 3 bones, joints, skeleton, etc.

The Skeletal system... consists of the bones, bone marrow, cartilage, joints, ligaments, synovial membrane, synovial fluid, and bursa.
Only dental enamel is harder than bone
Periosteum the tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bone.
Compact Bone is the dense, hard, and very strong bone that forms the protective outer layer of bones.
Spongy Bone is lighter, & not as strong, as compact bone.
medullary cavity is located in the shaft of a long bone & is surrounded by compact bone.
endosteum is the tissue that lines the medullary cavity.
Red Bone Marrow which is located within the spongy bone, is hemopoietic tissue that manufactures red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, & thrombocytes.
Hemopoietic means pertaining to the formation of blood cells.
Yellow bone marrow which functions as a fat storage area, is composed chiefly of fat cells & is located in the medullary cavity.
Cartilage is the smooth, rubbery, blue-white connective tissue that acts as a shock absorber between bones. Makes up flexible parts such as the ear & tip of nose.
Articular cartilage covers the surfaces of bones where they come together to form joints. This cartilage makes smooth movement possible & protects the bones from rubbing against each other.
meniscus is the curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints, such as the knee & the jaw.
diaphysis is the shaft of a long bone.
epiphysis which is covered with articular cartilage, is the wide end of a long bone.
Proximal epiphysis is the end of the bone located nearest to the midline of the body.
Distal ephiphysis is the end of the bone located farthest away from the midline.
foramen is an opening in a bone through which blood vessels, nerves, & ligaments pass.
foramen magnum is the hole the spinal cord passes through to the brain.
process is a normal projection on the surface of a bone that serves as an attachment for muscles & tendons.
joints which are also known as articulations, are the place of union between two or more bones.
Fibrous joints consisting of inflexible layers of dense connective tissue, hold the bones tightly together. In adults, these joints, aka sutures, do not allow any movement.
fontanelles aka as soft spots, are normally present on the skull of a newborn. These flexible soft spots facilitate the passage of the infant through the birth canal & allow for growth of the skull.
Cartilaginous joints allow only slight movement & consist of bones connected entirely by cartilage.
Pubic symphysis is the cartilaginous joint known that allows some movement to facilitate childbirth.
synovial joint is created where two bones articulate to permit a variety of motions.
Ball & Socket joints such as the hips & shoulders, allow a wide range of movement in many directions.
Hinge joints such as the knees & elbows, are synovial joints that allow movement primarily in one direction or plane.
synovial joints consist of several components that make complex movements possible.
synovial capsule is the outermost layer of strong fibrous tissue that resembles a sleeve as it surrounds the joint.
synovial membrane lines the capsule & secretes synovial fluid
synovial fluid which flows within the synovial cavity, acts as a lubricant to make the smooth movement of the joint possible.
ligaments are bands of fibrous tissue that form joints by connecting one bone to another bone, or joining a bone to cartilage.
bursa is a fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas that are subject to friction such as the shoulder, elbow & knee joints where a tendon passes over a bone.
The typical adult human skeleton consists of approximately 206 bones
axial skeleton protects the major organs of the nervous, respiratory & circulatory systems.
axial means pertaining to an axis, which is an imaginary line that runs lengthwise through the center of the body.
The axial skeleton consists of 80 bones including those of the skull; the ribs, sternum, & thoracic vertebrae of the thoracic cavity; & the other vertebrae of the spinal column.
appendicular skeleton makes body movement possible & also protects the organs of digestion, excretion, & reproduction.
appendage is anything that is attached to a major part of the body.
The appendicular skeleton consists of 126 bones that are organized into the upper extremities & the lower extremities.
frontal bone forms the forehead.
parietal bones form most of the roof & upper sides of the cranium.
occipital bone forms the posterior floor & walls of the cranium.
two temporal bones form the sides & base of the cranium
sphenoid bone forms part of the base of the skull & parts of the floor & sides of the orbit.
orbit is the bony socket that surrounds & protects the eyeball.
ethmoid bone forms part of the posterior of the nose, the orbit, & the floor of the cranium.
meatus is the external opening of a canal.
two nasal bones form the upper part of the bridge of the nose.
mandible aka the jawbone, is the only moveable bone of the skull.
thoracic cavity aka the rib cage, is the bony structure that protects the heart & lungs.
The 12 pairs of ribs aka costals
The shoulders form the pectoral girdle, which supports the arms & hands; this also known as the shoulder girdle.
radius is the smaller & shorter bone in the forearm.
ulna is the larger & longer bone of the forearm.
spinal column aka the vertebral column, supports the head & body, & protects the spinal cord.
vertebra is a single segment of the spinal column.
vertebral foramen is the opening in the middle of the vertebra. The spinal cord passes through this opening.
At birth, the sacrum is composed of five separate bones; however, they fuse together in the young child to form a single bone.
coccyx aka the tailbone, forms the end of the spine & is actually made up of four small vertebrae that are fused together.
intervertebral disks which are made of cartilage, separate & cushion the vertebrae from each other.
pelvic girdle which protects internal organs & supports the lower extremities.
pubic bones are held securely together by the pubic symphysis.
tibia aka the shinbone, is the larger weight-bearing bone in the anterior of the lower leg.
fibula is the smaller of the two bones of the lower leg.
malleolus is the rounded bony protuberance on each side of the ankle.
ankles which form the joint between the lower leg & the foot, are each made up of seven short tarsal bones.
colles' fracture is aka a fractured wrist. This fracture occurs at the lower end of the radius when a person tries to stop a fall by landing on their hands.
closed fracture aka a simple fracture, or a complete fracture, is one in which the bone is broken, but there is no open wound in the skin.
open fracture aka a compound fracture, is one in which the bone is broken & there is an open wound in the skin.
comminuted fracture is one in which the bone is splintered or crushed.
greenstick fracture or incomplete fracture, is one in which the bone is bent & only partially broken.
oblique fracture occurs at an angle across the bone.
pathologic fracture occurs when a weakened bone breaks under normal strain.
spiral fracture is a fracture in which the bone has been twisted apart.
stress fracture which is an overuse injury, is a small crack in the bone that often develops from chronic excessive impact.
Created by: Karebear



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