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2274 Lec1

Categories of Anatomy Gross Anatomy, Microscopic Anatomy, Functional Anatomy
Superior Towards head
Inferior Towards feet
Proximal Towards core
Distal Away from core
Medial Towards the center line
Lateral Away from the center line
Coronal plane Divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
Transverse plane Divides the body into superior and inferior parts
Midsagittal plane Divides the body into equal right and left parts
Axial region head, neck, and trunk
Appendicular region upper and lower limbs
Body Cavities Cranial cavity, Thoracic cavity, Abdominal cavity, pelvic cavity, spinal cavity
parietal peritoneum Outer membrane
visceral peritoneum inner membrane (around organs)
Thoracic cavity mediastinum, pleura cavity, pericardial cavity
Integumentary system Protect tissues, regulate body temperature, house sensory receptors
Skeletal system provide support, provide attachments for muscles, produce blood cells, store inorganic salts
Muscular system movement, maintain posture, produce body heat
Nervous system receive and interpret sensory information, trigger, muscles and glands
Endocrine system control metabolic activities
Cardiovascular system shuttle blood through vessels and transport substances throughout the body
Lymphatic system return interstitial fluid to blood, carry certain absorbed food molecules, defend the body against infection
Respiratory system intake and output of air exchange gases between air and blood
Digestive system digests food and chemicals, expels waste products
Urinary system remove waste from blood, maintain water and electrolyte balance, store and transport urine
Male reproductive system produce and maintain sperm cells, transfer sperm cells into female reproductive tract
Female reproductive system produce and maintain eggs cells, receive sperm cells, support development of an embryo, function in the birth process
Homeostasis The tendency of an organism to maintain a stable internal environment even though the external environment changes continuously
Components of a Physiological system Stimulus-receptors-control center(set point)-effectors (muscles or glands)-Responce (change is corrected)
Control Pathway: Setpoints Oscillation around the setpoint
Control Pathways: Feedback Loops Initial stimulus-response-stimulus-response loop shuts off
Negative feedback: homeostatic Prevents sudden, severe changes in the body, Counteracts bodily disruption, most common type of feedback loop
Positive feedback: not homeostatic Increases (amplifies) the actions of the body, produces more instability in the body, positive feedback mechanisms are short-lived, controls only infrequent events that do not require continuous adjustments, cycle does not terminate by itself
Created by: Lynne77