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chapter 1&2

Homeostasis maintain a relatively constant rate for the system to work properly
Positive feedback The conditions are primarily stimulatory. the response is geared to enhance change to the system.
Negative feedback the controls are primarily Inhibitory, The response is geared to oppose a change to system, either by preventing the change or to turn on the opposing action, thus affecting to normal state.
Synergy defines the interaction of opposing (antagonistic)responses, while maintaining the homeostatic balnce in an organism.
Energy Anything that allows work to happen.
Chemical Enegry reaction between two or more comonents.
Endergonic requiring energy
Exergonic Producing energy
Mechanical energy Energy used to physically move objects
Electro-Chemical Energy that travels in waves
Radiant Energy Energy that travels in waves
Nuclear energy Energy released or gained by the process of: fission and fusion
Fission of atomic nucleus( splitting the nucleus)
Fussion of atomin nuclei (coming together)
Matter defines anything that has amss ans occupies space.
The simplest form of matter element
element represented by the atomic forms (ex. H,C,O,N)
elements are further define a simpler for called an atom
Atoms are composed of: Nucleus, protons, neutrons, electrons
Nucleus: which is subdivided into two subatomic particles
protons: Atomic mass unit (AMU) value= 1, particles within the nucleus having captured a "positron" rendering it in to positive charged particle
Neutrons AMU value: 1; paticles within the nucleus having captured both "positron and electron" rendering it into Neutral(0) charged particle.
Electron cloud: Set of orbits, sub-orbitals containing electrons Set of orbits, sub-orbitals containing electrons
Electrons AMU Value= "non-existent" (negligible)=0; Negatively(-) charged particle orbiting the nucleus
Atomic number total number of protons (+) present in the nucleus of the atom
Electron number number of electron(s) equals the number of Proton(s) in a neutral atom
Atomic mass number the number of Protons plus the number of neutrons(0) in the nucleus
Neutron number the difference obtained between the Atomic mass resulting in the atual number of neutrons
Octect rule the necessity of an atom, which may be electro-neutral to reach a state of "fullness"
Compounds Bonding of two or more different elements using any one or combination of the following forms of chemical bonds
Chemical bonding the process of tranferring(ionic)or sharing(covalent) of electrons in the outer orbit with other atoms to achieve (Octect satisfaction) stability.
Ionic bonding Ionic bonding occurs when an atom loses (tranfers) one or more electron(s) out and another atom gains (accepts) one or more electrons in for the expressed purpose of satisfying the octect rule
Covalent bonding the sharing of one or more electrons between two atoms
polar unequal sharing of electrons between different atoms
non-polar equal sharing of electrons between like atoms; represented by the following possibilities of interaction
SINGLE NON-POLAR covalent bonding when two atoms of same atomic number, share a pair of electrons
double non-polar covalent bonding when two atoms of same atomic number share at least two pairs of electrons
triple non-polar covalent bonding when two of same atomic number share at least 3 pairs of electrons
Hydrogen Bonds When htdrogen atom acts as link between two other atoms
Di-Sulfide bond the linkformed by the association of two sulfur atoms found in seperate amino acids
Electrolytes soulble inorganic compounds whose ions may conduct an electric current in a solution ot along a membrane
types of electrolytes Hydrophilic,hydrophobic
Hydrophilic "water loving" molecules that will readily dissolve in water
Hydrophobic "Water fearing" molecules that do not readily dissolve in water
Soultions complex of a solvent and one or more solute
Solvent fluid medium;generally water in a biological system
solute Dissolved substance in the solvent, such as sugar, salt, proteins
Ionization Dissociation of a molecule (water) in solution to form ions
Acidic substances substances that when dissolved in a solutionincrease the hydronium ion or that decrease Hydroxl ion concentration in that solution
Basic substances substances that when dissolved in a solution increase the Hydroxyl or that decrease hydronium ion concentration in that solution
Neutral substances substance having an equal ratio of H+ to [OH-] ions concentration in solution
organic compounds hydrocarbons and cabohydrates
Hydrocarbons the basic substrate of most biologically active molecules
Carbohydrates primarily use is producing cellular energy in for of (ATP)
types of carbohydrates Monosacharides,disacharides,polyaccharides, lipids,proteins, nucleic acids
Categories of monoseccharides Triose =3 carbon sugar, pentose = 5 carbon sugar, hexose = 6 carbon sugar
isomers molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structural configuration
mechanisms (Anabolism and Canabolism) Di or polyaccharide synthesis and/or break down
Anabolism dehydration synthesis (condensation): linking molecules by removing water forming chemical bond, resulting in the formation of a more complex molecule
glycosidic bond the linkage of two hexose molecules using this synthesis reaction
Catabolism Hydrolysis: breakdown of multiple units into individual building blocks by introducing h20 to cleave(splits) the molecules apart
Dissaccharides Dimer of two hexose sugars, linked together by a glycosidic bond
types of dissaccharides sucrose, maltose, lactose
sucrose table(gluctose-Fructose) sugar
maltose Malt (glucose-glucose) sugar
lactose milk ( glucose-galactose) sugar
polyaccharides polymer of many hexose sugars, linked together by many glycosidic bonds
types of polyaccharides Glycogen, starches, cellulose, chitin, oligosaccharides
Glycogen a polymer of many glucose molecules (animal starch)
starches similar to glycogen but produced by plants; digestible by humans
cellulose fiber similar to glycogen but produced by plants; indigestible by humans due to lack of enzyme cellulase
chitin found in fungi and in the exoskeltons of all arthropods
oligosaccharides "branched" polyaccharide(cell membrane antigens)
lipids essential as: source of energy reserves; insulation of neurons
plasma membrane a fluid-mosaic modle of many components
components of the Phospholpid bilayer cholesterol, prostaglandin, cyclases, intrinsic/extrinstic proteins, aquaPorins, glycoclyx
Cholestrol structural supports the membrane walls, much like steel rods support a building
prostaglandin a membrane-bound hormone affecting many functions, through its molecular intermediation, including muscle toness, contraction and metabolism
cyclases communicates cell functions through the nucleus
intrinsic/ extrinsic proteins involved in cellular communication
AquaPorins allows water molecules, passageinto or out of the cytoplasm
Glycocalyx "Braille" SYSTEM of communication between the inside and the outside of the cell
modes of transportation physical,physiological
physical (passive) no additional energy is required.
types of physical transportation pore diffusion, lipid diffusion, osmosis, dialysis, facilitated diffusion
pore diffusion the flow of substances through dynamic pores. movement proceeds from high to low concentration
lipid diffusion the flow of fat soluble substances through the phospho-lipid region of the membrane from an areas of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
osmosis the movement of water molecules through channel proteins within the membrane from an areas of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
osmotic pressure: force required to prevent the movement of water molecules against concentration gradient
terms associated with osmotic process Osmotics, tonic, hyper, hypo, ISO, lysis, crenation
osmotic a measure of solvent concentration in a solution
tonic a measure of solute concentration in a solution
hyper prefix to indicate "higher concentration of...than..."
Hypo prefix to indicate "lower concentration of...than..."
ISO prefix to indicate " same concentration to.."
Lysis indicates that there is a "bursting of cells" from the cell taking in excess solvent
Crenation indicates that the cell is "shrinking" as solvent leaves the system
Dialysis a selectivly permeable membrane used to permit movement of some particles while keeping others from passing through
facilitated diffusion essential nutrients that are too large to pass through membrane
physiological (active: process requires additional energy (ATP) source, and substances moves from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration and vice versa
types of physiological transportation active molecular transport, endocytosis, exocytosis
Active molecular transport the sodium/ potassium pump as observed in nerve impulse propagation in a nerve cell. Calcium channels in nerve cells and musle fiberd muscle concentration
endocytosis brings one or more things into cell
receptor mediated endocytosis transporting a specific targeted substance into the cell, requires the help of Na+ to act as a co-carrier to transport anything into cell
phagocytosis cell eating large/small particles
pinocytosis cell drinking small particles
exocytosis involves the elimination of waste; cell product secretions
merocrine cell secretion whereby there is a form of "reverse pinocytosis"
apocrine the tip of cell breaks off, thus releasing a packet of cell secretory products
endoplasmic reticulum netwoek of intracellular membranes, originationg from cell membrane and actively involved in the synthesis, storage and delivery of some of the cell's products
granular contains ribosomes which translate RNA (rough) strands into chains of amino acids into polypeptide chains protein synthesis
agranular (smooth) free of ribosomes; involved in detoxification of drugs; synthesis of polysaccharides; steriodial hormones and lipids
the golgi apparatus derived through the fractioning of the smooth ER
lysosomes micro vesicles containing digestive, hydrolytic enzymes, which perform cleanup and recycling functions inside or outside the cell
autolytic vesicles cell bound; specializing in digesting of dead and decaying cell organelles
phagosomes cell bound; within phagocytes; responsible for intracellular digestion
acrosomes cell bound; found on the head of the sperm, permits fertilization to take place
lysozymes fluid bond; kills bacteria and fungi from outside, found outside the cell in tears, saliva mucous, sweat, sebum, cerum, urine, milk, semen, and vaginal secretion
embryonic lysosomes highly active lysosomes in the embryo/fetus
perixisomes package of catalytic enzymes; speeds up the conversion of toxins into lesser toxic states
mitochondrion a prokaryotic symbiont co-evolving with the eukaryotic cell for a mutual benefit; it is involved in the aerobic pespiration process to make energy
nucleus directs most of the cells functions, contains the molecule DNA whichmdictates both replicative and transcriptive that can be translated by the RER into polypeptide chains, thus governing the functions of the cell via the synthesis of proteins
cytoskeleton an internal protein framework that gives the cytoplasm strength and flexibility
microfilaments composed of slender protein strands (fibers) that form a dense layer under the cells membrane.
intermediate filaments provide strnght; stabalize position of the organelles; transport materials within the cell; found in smooth muscle ccells- mesh around cell permits sarcomeric attachments, used in muscle contractions
thick filaments composed of Myosin protein subunits associated with Actin found in muscle sarcomere permitting muscle contraction
microtubules hollow tubes built from the globular protein Tubulin; used to "move" organlles around the cell
centrosomes consist of two centrioles: direct the synthesis of spindle fibers; involved in Karyokinesis and Cytokinesis
micovilli small finger-like projections of the cell-membrane; increases surface areas and movement
cilia undulating, hair-like structures that move fluids or secretions across a stationary cell, usually associated with the respitory tract and fallopian tubes
flagella they move a cell through fluids instead of moving fluids across a stationary cell
sterocilia patches of microcilia dispersed on specialized cells found in the inner ear
ribosomes associated with rough ER, can be fixed or free
cell junctions desmosomes, tight, gap
Desmosomes zipper like linkage between cell membranes; permits stretching; rich in collagen and elastin molecules, proteoglycans(skin); accomadate growth
tight spotwelds: fusion of adjacent membrane regions; rich in intermediate filaments; forms interfacial canals for communication
gap fusion of membrane-bound "intrinsic" proteins to form a bridge between cells
cytoplasm liquid compartment of the cell; contains water, electrolytes, metabolites, enzymes, wastes .etc. which mediate most chemical events that takes place within the cell
Created by: 100000555639932



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