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Chapter 14 Blood

Holes 12th ed.

Blood inside blood vessels, interetitial fluid around body cells, and lymph inside lymph vessels constitute one's what? Internal Enviornment
To obtain nutirents and remove wastes, cells must be serviced by what? Interstitial Fluid and Blood.
Blood is composed of plasma and formed elements and what type of tissue? Connective Tissue
What type of fluid bathes body cells? Intersititial Fluid.
Branch of science concened with the study of blood-forming tissue, and disorders associated with them is called? Hematology
What are the functions of blood? Transports oxygen, carbon dioxidem nutrients, heat, wasted and hormones. Helps regulate Ph, body tempature, and water content of cells. Prevents Blood loss through clotting and combats toxins and through luekocytes and plasma proteins.
What are the physical characteristic of blood? Visocosity greater than water, Temp 38C and PH of 7.35 to 7.45. *% of body wieght. 4 to 6 liters in the body.
Blood consists of what % of plasma? 55%
Blood consists of what % of formed elements? 45%
Plasma consists of what precent of plasma and what percent of formed elements? 91.5% Water and 8.5% Elements
Principle solutes include what proteins? Albumins, Globulins and Fibrinogen
The formed elements in blood consists of what? Erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes
The precentage of total blood volume occupied by RBC is called the what? Hematocrit
A significant drop in hematocrit indicates what? anemia
THere are several means for athletes to increase their what? hematocrit
When athletes increase thier hematocrit it is called what? polycytemia
Induced polycytemia means what? To increase the oxygen carrying blood capacity before athletic event
Blood cells are formed from what? Pluripotent stem cells
What type of cells orginate from pluripotent stem cells? Myeloid Stem Cells & Lymphoid Stem Cells
What cells give rise to RBC's, platlets and all WBC's except for lymphocytes? Myeloid Stem Cells
Cells that give rise to lymphocytes? Lymphoid Stem Cells
Which cells differentiate into progenitor cells or precursor cells (blasts cells which will develop into the actual progenitor cells or precursor cells. These turn into the formed elemets of blood? Myeloid Stem Cells
Which cells that differentiate into pre-B and prothymocytes which develop into V-lymphocytes and T0Lymphocytes respectively? Lymphoid Stem Cells
The process of hemopoiesis is stimulated by several what? Hematopoietic Growth Factors
Name three hematopoietic growth factors? Erythropoietin, Thrombopoietin, Cytokins
This increases the number of RBC precursors? Erythropoietin
This increases the number of platelet precursors? Thrombopoietin
This increases the number of WBC? Cytokins
Production of RBC's is called what? Erythropoiesis
What is the main stimulus for erythropoiesis? Hypoxia
What is the name of the diagonostic test that indicates the rate of erythropoiese and is useful in treating anemia? Reticulocyte Count
What is the average reticulocyte Count? .5-1.5% of all RBCs
RBC contain oxygen-carrying protein hemoglobin and number about how many million cells/microliter of blood? 5.4 million
Which cells are biconcave discs without nuclei? RBC's
Hemoglobins means what? protein=(globin) + heme (iron)
What is the function of the hemoglobin in RBCs is to what? Transport oxygen and some carbon dioxide
What role does the hemoglobin play in blood pressure? NO binds with hemoglobin, Hemoglobin can release NO, Release NO causes vasodilation which improves blood flow & enhances oxygen delivery to the area
The RBC lives for about how may day? 120
Why do RBC only live about 120 days? Because of the wear and tear on their plasma membrances as they swueese through blood capillaries
In the RBC life cycle, fter phagocytosis of worn-out RBCs by macrophages what is recycled? Hemoglobin
At the end of the RBC the iron in the heme portion reclaimed with the rest of the heme molecule the rest becomes the componenet of what? Bile in the digestive Process
These are found in the kidney and liver to detect low blood oxygen? Chemoreceptors
This is released from the kidney and liver into circulation? Erythropoietin
This targets red bone marrow stimulated erythropoiesis? Erythropoietin
White blood cells are called what? Leukocytes
These cells are nucleated and do not contain hemogloblin? Leukocytes
Two principle types of leukocytes are? Granular and Agranular
List three types of granular cells? neutrophil, eosinophils and basophils
Name two types of agranular cells? Monocytes and Lymphocytes
What type of cell is this? Most abundant 54-62%, polymorphonucleocytes, phagocytes of foregin particles, increase in acute bacterial infections. Neutrophils
What tyoe of cell is this? 1-3% total WBCs, kills parasites and are responsible for allergic reactions regulations, release histaminase during alergic reactions. Increase during parasitic infections (tapeworm & hook worm. Eosinophils
What type of cell is this? <1% of total WBCs, release heparin which inhibits blood clotting, Release histamine, May leave blood stream and develop into mast cells. Basophils
What type of cells is this? 3-9% of total WBCs, phagovutosis, largest white blood cell. 12-20 microns. In blood pahgocyte in tissue a macrophage. Increased during typoid fever, malaria and mononucleosis? Monocyte
What type of cell is this? 25-33% of total WBCs, live for several months to years, produce antibodies that acts agains specific forgin substances. (immunity) Increased during TB, whooping caoughm viral infections, tissue rejection reactions and tumors. Lymphocytes
What are the proteins of erythrocytes and leukocytes called? Major Histocompatibility Antigens (MHC)
How long do WBCs usually live for? A few hours or few days
Normal blood contains how many leukocytes? 5,000-10,000
This means and increase in the number of WBCs. Leukocytosis
This refers to abnormally low number of WBCs. Leukopenia
What is the general funcation of leukocytes? To combat inflammation and infection.
WBC leave the bllod stream by? Diapedesis
What is the chemical attratction of WBCs to a disease or injury site called? Chemotaxis
To determine the precentage of each type of WBC in the blood assists in diagnosing a condition is called what? Differential White Blood Cell Count
This stimulates myeloid stem cells to produce platelets? Thrombopoietin
Myeloid Stem Cells develop into what? Megakaryocyte-colony-forming cells
Megakaryocytes develop into what? Megakaryoblasts
A fragment enclosed by a piece of cell membrane is called a what? Thrombocyte
Normal Blood contains how many platelets? 150,000-400,000
How many days do platelets live? 5-9 days
Dead platelets are removed by fixed macrophages where? Spleen and Liver
Platelets help stop loss from damdged vessels by forming a what? Platelet Plug
This is a test that screens for anemia and various infections. Includes counts of RBC, WBCs and platelets. Also includes a hematocrit and differential WBC count. The amount of hemoglobin is also determined? CBC (Complete Blood Count)
This is clear, yellow liquid, composed of proteins, nutrients, gases, electrolytes and many more substances. Blood Plasma
Blood Plasma contains how much water? 91.5%
This functions as a solvent, in transport, tempature regulations and serves as site of metabloic reactions? Water
Blood plasma contains what precent of plasma proteins? 7%
This is produced in the liver? Plasma Proteins
Maintains osmotic pressure of cells and transports fatty acids? Albumin
This produces antibodies? Globulins
The aids in the blood clotting process? Fibrinogen
These are plasma wastes? Urea, uric acid, creatinie, creatine, billrubin
Name examples of plasma electrolytes? Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate, and sulphate
This refers to the stoppage of bleeding? Hemostasis
Hemostasis involves 3 process what are they? Vascular Spasm,Platelet Plug Formation, blood clotting
During this process the smooth muscle of a blood vessel wall contracts to sto bleeding. Vascular Spasm
During this process clumping of platelets around the damage to stop the bleeding. Platelet Plug Formation
What is a gel consisting of a network of insoluble protein fibers which the formed elements of blood are trapped. Clot
Blood clotting cascade of reactions may be divided in what three stages? Formation of Prothrombinase, conversion of prothrombin into thrombin, and conversion of soluble fibrinogen into insouluble.
The blood clotting cascade can be initiate by either? Extrinsic Pathway or Intrinsic Pathway
Patients who are at risk of forming blood clots may receive an anticongulant drug such as? Heprin & Warfarin
Clotting in an unbroken blood vessel is called what? Thrombosis
A Clot bubble of air, fat from broken bones, or a piece of debris transported by the bloodstream that moves from its site of orgin is can an? Embolus
What inhibits vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation thereby reducing the chance of thrombus formation. Low dose of asprin
This is a disorder due to RH incompatibility between mother and fetus is called? Erythroblastosis Fetalis
What drug is used to treat erythroblastosis Fetalis? RhoGAM
This is a condition in which the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is reduced, usually characterized by decrease RBC count or hemoglobin deficiency. Anemia
Is an inherited disorder due to an abnormal kind of hemoglobin RBCs show a characteristic sickle cell shaped. Sickle Cell Anemia
Is an inherited deficiency of clotting in which bleeding may occur spontaneously or after only minor trauma? Hemophilia
This is a disorder of hemostasis characterized y simultaneous and unregulated blood clotting and hemorrhage. Diseminated Intravascular Clotting
Is a malignant disease of blood forming tissues characterized by uncontrolled production and accumulation of immature leukocytes. . Leukemia
Created by: gage41001



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