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a/p test 1

the study of the body structure including chemical, microscopic( cells/tissues), and gross (organ/body) anatomy
the study of body FUNCTIONS( include chemical, microscopic, and gross) physiology
atoms in the body chemical level
molecules (dna) cellular level
tissue tissue level
serous membrane (outside), smooth muscle tissue layers (under serous), epithelial tissue. -stomach organ level
digestive system ( esophagus, liver, stomach, pancreas, gallbladder, small/large intestine) system level
person organismal level
structures that emerge from the time of the fertilized egg thru the 8th week in utero embrology
structures that emerge from the time of the ferilized egg to the adult form developmental biology
microscopic structure of tissues histology
anatomical landmarks on the surface of the body thru visualization and palpation surface anatomy
structures that can be exampined without a microscope gross anatomy
structure of specific systems of the body such as the nervous or respitory system systematic anatomy
specific regions of the body such as the head or chest regional antaomy
body structures that can be visualized with x rays radiographic anatomy
structural changes associated with disease pathological anatomy
functional properties of nerve cells neurophysiology
hormones and how they control body functions endocrinology
functions of the heart and blood vessels cardiovascular physiology
how the body defends itself against disease-causing agents immunology
functions of the air passageways and lungs respitory physology
functions of the kidneys renal physiology
changes in cell and organ functions as a result of muscular activity exercise physiology
functional changes associated with disease and aging pathophysiology
development of a cell from an unspecialized to specialized state differentiation
characteritics of differentiation cells have specialized structures and functions that differ from precursor cells, and stem cells give rise to cells that undergo differentiation
formation of new cells (growth, repair, or replacment) and production of a baby reproduction
motion of the whole body movement
increase in body size growth
sum of all the chemical process that occur in the body metabolism
the breakdown of complex chemical sunstances into simpler components catabolism
the building up of complex chemical substances from smaller, simpler components anabolism
body's ability to detect and respond to changes (decrease in bodytemp, respond to sound, nerves) responsiveness
what are the basic life processes? metabolism (catabolism, anabolism), responsiveness, growth, movement, differetiation, and reproduction
the series of regulated processes that maintains the body in a normal healthy state of equilibrium homeostasis
what is homeostasis in terms of a limited range of internal conditions in which cells can operate sodium levels in the intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid `
skin and structures associated with it such as hair, glands,and nails. protects the body, regulates temp, detects senstaion, makes vitamin D intugumentary system
bones and joints of the body and their associated cartilages. they support and protect the body, provides surface area for muscles skeletal system
muscles composed of skeletal muscle tissue. produces body movements muscular system
brain, spinal cord, nerves, and special sense organs (eyes/ears). generates action potentials to regulate body activites nervous system
hormone producing glands and hormone producing cells in several other organs. regulates body activites by releasing hormones endocrine system
blood, heart, and blood vessels. heart pumps blood thru blood vesels, blood carries Oxygen CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
organs of gastrointestinal tract (mouth, throat, liver, stomach, intestins) digestive system
kidneys, urinary bladder, urethra. urinary system
lymphatic fluid and vessels (spleen, thymus, lymph, nodes, and tonsils) returns proteins and fluid to blood. lymphatic system
lungs/air passageways. transfers oxygen from inhaled air to blood respitory system
gonads and associated organs. reproductive system
body upright, standing erect,feet flat, palms up, upper limbs to the side anatomical position
body is laying face down prone position
body is lying face up supine position
occipital base of skull
acromial shoulder
cephalic head
cervical neck
scapular shoulder blade
vertebral spinal column
olecranal back of elbow
dorsal back
lumbar loin
sacral between hips
gluteal buttock
popliteal hollow behind knee
sural calf
plantar sole
calcaneal heal
dorsum back of hand
frontal forehead
oribtal eye
otic ear
buccal cheek
nasal nose
oral mouth
mental chin
sternal breastbone
mammary breast
umbilical navel
coxal hip
inguinal groin
thoracic chest
pubis pubic
manual hand
dorsum top of foot
tarsal ankle
digital/phalangeal toes and fingers
pedal foot
crural leg
femoral thigh
patellar anterior surface of knee
palmer palm
carpal wrist
antebrachial forearm
antecubital front of elbow
bracial arm
axillary armpit
formed by cranial bones and holds the brain cranial cavity
contains spinal cord and the begininings of spinal nerve vertebral cavity
chest cavity thoracic cavity
each surrounds a lung pleural cavity
surrounds the heart pericaridal cavity
central portion of thoracic cavity between the lungs mediastinum
contains stomach, spleen, liver, gallblader, small/large intenstine abdominal cavity
contains urinary bladder, large intestine, reproduction organs pelvic cavity
nearer to the attatchement of a limb to the trunk proximal
farther from the midline lateral
farther from the attatchment of a limb to the trunk distal
nearer to the midline medial
nearer to the front of the body anterior
nearer to the back of the body posterior
torward the head superior
away from the head inferior
a vertical plane that divides the body into right and left sides. (midsagittal is equal, parasagittal is not) sagital plane
divides the body or an organ into anterior and posterior portions frontal/ coronal plane
divides the body or and organ into superior and inferior portions transvers (cross-sectional/horizonal) plane
passes thru the body of an organ at an angle oblique plane
cut of the body made along a plane sections
something that can be measured or observed clinical sign
a complaint by the patient clinical symptom
seeing bones x-ray or radiograph
more detailed xray- not just bones magnetic resonance image (MRI)
using a camera to enter anal colonoscopy
xray technology used to look at babies in the stomach sonograph
to see if theres a blockage in coronary arteries in the heart angiogram
xray of breast mammogram
xray to see theres a kidney stone or any abnormalties intravenour urogram
barium is put into your body to see if theres any abonormalties in the digestive tract barium contrast x-ray
computer generated xray that can see things from different sections without actually getting into the tissue computed tomography
substances that cannot be split into smaller units by ordinary chemical reactions chemical elements
what is matter composed of? atoms, nucleus, protons, neutrons,and electrons
located in electron shells around nucelus. 1st shell- 2, 2nd shell- 8, 3rd shell-18, 4th-18` electrons
number of protons in the nucleus which is also the number of electrons atomic number
total number of protons and neutrons mass number
different forms of an element that contain the same number of protons but different number of neutrons isotopes
mass of neutrons +protons+electrons atomic weight(atomic mass)
forms when atom gives up elections of gains elections. ion
forms when two or more atoms share electrons molecule
substance formed from different elements binding together that can be broken down into two or more different elements by ordinary chemical means compound
form between a positive and negatively chaged ion ionic bond
electron doners (+) cations
elections takers (-) anions
formed by atoms of molecules sharing 1, 2, or 3 pairs of valence electrons covalent bonds
atoms share electrons equally nonpolar bond
one atom attracts electons more strongly polar bond
when new bonds are formed or existing bonds are broken between atoms chemical reactions
mass of reactants= mass of products energy of reactants= energy of products (although, energy can be a different form) law of conservation of mass
all chemical reactions in an organism metabolism
capacity to do work energy
energy stored by matter due to position potential energy
energy stored by matter due to movement kinetic energy
a type of potental energy found in chemical bonds chemical energy
reaction between two or more molecules where more energy is released than utilizzed exothermic reaction
in this reaction between two or more molecules, more energy is utilized than released. (energy required is often from ATP) endothermic reaction
chemical compounds that speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy needed for a reaction to occur catalyst
in the body, what type of molecule serves the important role as catalysts for most chemical reactions? enzymes
two or more atoms, ions, or molecules combine to form a new and larger molecule. an anabolic reaction (a +b >ab) synthesis
a molecule is broken down into smaller parts. a catabolic reaction (ab >a+b) decomposition
the replacement of an atom or atoms by another atom of atoms (ab+cd >ad+bc) exchange reactions
end products can revert back to the original molecule (ab <> a+b) reversible reactions
the most important inoganic compound water!
dissolves the solute in a solution solvent
contains polar covalent bonds and dissolves water hydrophillic substance
contains nonpolar bonds and does not dissolve in water hydophobic substance
breaks down large molecules into simpler ones by adding a molecule to water hydolysis
occurs when two simple molecules join together, producing a water molecule in the process dehydration
can absorb or release heat with limited change in its own temperature(water) high heat capacity
requires a high temperature to change from liquid to gas(water) high heat of vaporization
water is a major component of mucus and other lubricating substances lubricant
a combination of elements or compounds that are physically blended together but are not bound by chemical bonds mixture
a substance called solvent dissolves a substance called solute solution
a type of mixture where particles are dispersed in solvent but large enough to scatter light colloid
a type of mixture where particles may be dispersed for a while but eventually seperate from the solvent suspension
amount of any substance that has a mass in grams equal to the sum of the atomic masses of all its atoms mole
dissociates into one more more hydrogen atoms and one or more anions. a proton doner acid
dissociates into one or more hydoxide ions (OH) and one or more cations. proton acceptor base
dissociates into cations and anions, neither of which is H or OH. responsible for maintaining the levels of many important electrolytes in the body salt
means of expressing the acidity or alkalinity of a solution PH scale
negative logarithm of concentration of hydrogen in moles/L of solution. PH
Ph less than 7 acidic
ph more than 7 basic
groups of chemical compoounds t hat can convert a strong acid or a strong base into a weak acid or a weak base. buffer systems
usually contain C, H, and O. sometimes N, S, and P. organic molecules
what are the major types of organic molecules? carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
glucose(blood), fructose(fruit), galactose(milk), deoxyribose(dna), ribose)rna) monosacarides
sucrose(sugar-glu+fruc), lactose(milk-glu+galac), maltose(glu+glu) disaccarides
the stored forms of carbs in animals(glycogen), plants(starch), and cellulose(plant cell walls) polysaccharides
make up about 2-3% of the body, polar and hydrophillic carbohydrates
18-25% of body mass in lean adults. hydrophobic lipids
most plentiful organic substance in body. triglycerides
fatty acids that are necessary for good health but can not be made by human body. must be obtained thru food essential fatty acids
carry cholersterol in the blood (LDLD=bad, HDL=good) lipoproteins
formed by "hydrogenating" unsaturated fats trans fat
very large organic molecules containing C, H, O, N, and P. basic units are nucleotides nucleic acid
forms the genetic code in each cell. major molecule that forms a chromosome deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
several different forms that play key roles in protein synthesis ribonucleic acid (RNA)
major component of ribosomes rRNA
transfers the genetic information from DNA to the ribosome for protein sysnthsis mRNA
transports amino acids to the ribosome for protein synthesis tRNA
how atp stores energy atp+h20 (atpase)>adp +po4+ energy adp+po4+energy (atp synthase)>atp+h20
channels in a cell for na, k, and cl ion channels
provide special mechanisms for moving substances across the membrane (sodium-potassium pump) transporters (carriers)
insulin receptor on cells receptors
lactase on surface of simple columnar epithilial cells in small intestine digests lactose in milk enzymes
hold adjacent cells together (epithilial cells, cardiac muscle cells) linkers
MHC(major histocompatibility complex) or HLA (human leucocyte antigen) cell identity markers
make up 12-18% of body mass, composed of amino acids, contain C,H,O,N and some S. proteins
form covalent bonds between each other -specifically called a "peptide bond". 20 different ones. amino group/acidic carboxyl group/side chains. amino acids
2 amino acids bound together dipeptide
3 amino acids bound together tripeptide
4-9 amino acids bound together peptide
10 several thousand amino acids bound together polypeptide
passive movement of a substance down its concentration gradient via transmembrane proteins that act as transorters facilliated diffusion
transport in which cell expends energy to move a substance across the membrane against its concentration gradient through transmembrane proteins that act as transporters active transport
the cell membrane is a fluid substance. the phospholipid molecules in the membrane bi-layers are in constant motion. the amount of cholesterol molecules within the cell membrane affect the fluidity- increased cholersterol makes the membrace less fluid membrane fluidity
the ability to allow substances to pass through the membrane. cell membrane has selective permeability membrace permeability
what can pass through the cell membrane? non-polar, uncharged molecules such as fatty acids, small alcohols, and ammonia
what cant pass through the cell membrane? larger, polar or charged molecules (with the exception of water)
the difference om the concentration of a substance from one location to another. concentration gradient
movement of solute or solvent down their concentration gradients due to random mixing. can occur across a permeable membrane diffusion
the net movement of a solvent through a selectively permeable membrane osmosis
factors that affect diffusion across the cell membrane steepness of gradient, temp, size of diffusing particle, surface area for diffusion, diffusion distance
Created by: daniellegagnon